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Title: Recovering Rare Earth Elements from Aqueous Solution with Porous Amine–Epoxy Networks

Abstract

Recovering aqueous rare earth elements (REEs) from domestic water sources is one key strategy to diminish the U.S.’s foreign reliance of these precious commodities. Herein, we synthesized an array of porous, amine–epoxy monolith and particle REE recovery sorbents from different polyamine, namely tetraethylenepentamine, and diepoxide (E2), triepoxide (E3), and tetra-epoxide (E4) monomer combinations via a polymer-induced phase separation (PIPS) method. The polyamines provided -NH2 (primary amine) plus -NH (secondary amine) REE adsorption sites, which were partially reacted with C–O–C (epoxide) groups at different amine/epoxide ratios to precipitate porous materials that exhibited a wide range of apparent porosities and REE recoveries/affinities. Specifically, polymer particles (ground monoliths) were tested for their recovery of La3+, Nd3+, Eu3+, Dy3+, and Yb3+ (Ln3+) species from ppm-level, model REE solutions (pH ≈ 2.4, 5.5, and 6.4) and a ppb-level, simulated acid mine drainage (AMD) solution (pH ≈ 2.6). Screening the sorbents revealed that E3/TEPA-88 (88% theoretical reaction of -NH2 plus -NH) recovered, overall, the highest percentage of Ln3+ species of all particles from model 100 ppm- and 500 ppm-concentrated REE solutions. Water swelling (monoliths) and ex situ, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) (ground monoliths/particles) data revealed the high REE uptake by the optimized particlesmore » was facilitated by effective distribution of amine and hydroxyl groups within a porous, phase-separated polymer network. In situ DRIFTS results clarified that phase separation, in part, resulted from polymerization of the TEPA-E3 (N-N-diglycidyl-4-glycidyloxyaniline) species in the porogen via C–N bond formation, especially at higher temperatures. Most importantly, the E3/TEPA-88 material cyclically recovered >93% of ppb-level Ln3+ species from AMD solution in a recovery–strip–recovery scheme, highlighting the efficacy of these materials for practical applications.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3]
  1. National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. AECOM, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, Morgantown, WV (United States); Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE); AECOM, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1433610
Grant/Contract Number:  
FE0004000
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 21; Journal ID: ISSN 1944-8244
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; amine; infrared spectroscopy; lanthanide; porous polymer; rare earth element; water treatment

Citation Formats

Wilfong, Walter Christopher, Kail, Brian W., Bank, Tracy L., Howard, Bret H., and Gray, McMahan L. Recovering Rare Earth Elements from Aqueous Solution with Porous Amine–Epoxy Networks. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acsami.7b03859.
Wilfong, Walter Christopher, Kail, Brian W., Bank, Tracy L., Howard, Bret H., & Gray, McMahan L. Recovering Rare Earth Elements from Aqueous Solution with Porous Amine–Epoxy Networks. United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b03859
Wilfong, Walter Christopher, Kail, Brian W., Bank, Tracy L., Howard, Bret H., and Gray, McMahan L. Fri . "Recovering Rare Earth Elements from Aqueous Solution with Porous Amine–Epoxy Networks". United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b03859. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1433610.
@article{osti_1433610,
title = {Recovering Rare Earth Elements from Aqueous Solution with Porous Amine–Epoxy Networks},
author = {Wilfong, Walter Christopher and Kail, Brian W. and Bank, Tracy L. and Howard, Bret H. and Gray, McMahan L.},
abstractNote = {Recovering aqueous rare earth elements (REEs) from domestic water sources is one key strategy to diminish the U.S.’s foreign reliance of these precious commodities. Herein, we synthesized an array of porous, amine–epoxy monolith and particle REE recovery sorbents from different polyamine, namely tetraethylenepentamine, and diepoxide (E2), triepoxide (E3), and tetra-epoxide (E4) monomer combinations via a polymer-induced phase separation (PIPS) method. The polyamines provided -NH2 (primary amine) plus -NH (secondary amine) REE adsorption sites, which were partially reacted with C–O–C (epoxide) groups at different amine/epoxide ratios to precipitate porous materials that exhibited a wide range of apparent porosities and REE recoveries/affinities. Specifically, polymer particles (ground monoliths) were tested for their recovery of La3+, Nd3+, Eu3+, Dy3+, and Yb3+ (Ln3+) species from ppm-level, model REE solutions (pH ≈ 2.4, 5.5, and 6.4) and a ppb-level, simulated acid mine drainage (AMD) solution (pH ≈ 2.6). Screening the sorbents revealed that E3/TEPA-88 (88% theoretical reaction of -NH2 plus -NH) recovered, overall, the highest percentage of Ln3+ species of all particles from model 100 ppm- and 500 ppm-concentrated REE solutions. Water swelling (monoliths) and ex situ, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) (ground monoliths/particles) data revealed the high REE uptake by the optimized particles was facilitated by effective distribution of amine and hydroxyl groups within a porous, phase-separated polymer network. In situ DRIFTS results clarified that phase separation, in part, resulted from polymerization of the TEPA-E3 (N-N-diglycidyl-4-glycidyloxyaniline) species in the porogen via C–N bond formation, especially at higher temperatures. Most importantly, the E3/TEPA-88 material cyclically recovered >93% of ppb-level Ln3+ species from AMD solution in a recovery–strip–recovery scheme, highlighting the efficacy of these materials for practical applications.},
doi = {10.1021/acsami.7b03859},
journal = {ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces},
number = 21,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
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Cited by: 14 works
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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: General process for the formation of amine-epoxy monoliths and particles (TEPA-E3 shown), along with one hypothesized adsorbed REE (Ln3+) structure. Note, the remaining two chlorides (not shown) would be coordinated with water molecules.

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