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Title: Uniaxial, Pure Bending, and Column Buckling Experiments on Superelastic NiTi Rods and Tubes

Many existing shape memory alloy (SMA) devices consist of slender beams and frames. To better understand SMA beam behavior, we experimentally examined the isothermal, room temperature response of superelastic NiTi rods and tubes, of similar outer diameters, subjected to four different modes of loading. Pure tension, pure compression, and pure bending experiments were first performed to establish and compare the baseline uniaxial and bending behaviors of rods and tubes. Column buckling experiments were then performed on rod and tube columns of several slenderness ratios to investigate their mechanical responses, phase transformation kinetics under combined uniaxial and bending deformation, and the interaction between material and structural instabilities. In all experiments, stereo digital image correlation measured local displacement fields in order to capture phenomena such as strain localization and propagating phase boundaries. Superelastic mechanical behavior and the nature of stress-induced phase transformation were found to be strongly affected by specimen geometry and the deformation mode. Under uniaxial tension, both the rod and tube had well-defined loading and unloading plateaus in their superelastic responses, during which stress-induced phase transformation propagated along the length of the specimen in the form of a high/low strain front. Due to the dependence of strain localization on kinematicmore » compatibility, the high/low strain front morphologies differed between the rod and tube: for the rod, the high/low strain front consisted of a diffuse “neck”, while the high/low strain front in the tube consisted of distinct, criss-crossing “fingers.” During uniaxial compression, both cross-sectional forms exhibited higher transformation stresses and smaller transformation strains than uniaxial tension, highlighting the now well-known tension-compression asymmetry of SMAs. Additionally, phase transformation localization and propagation were absent under compressive loading. During pure bending, the moment-curvature response of both forms exhibited plateaus and strain localization during forward and reverse transformations. Rod specimens developed localized, high-curvature regions that propagated along the specimen axis and caused shear strain near the high/low curvature interface; whereas, the tube specimens exhibited finger/wedge-like high strain regions over the tensile side of the tube which caused nonlinear strain profiles through the thickness of the specimen that did not propagate. Here, it was therefore found that classical beam theory assumptions did not hold in the presence of phase transformation localization (although, the assumptions did hold on average for the tube). During column buckling, the structures were loaded into the post-buckling regime yet recovered nearly-straight forms upon unloading. Strain localization was observed only for high aspect ratio (slender) tubes, but the mechanical responses were similar to that of rods of the same slenderness ratio. Also, an interesting “unbuckling” phenomenon was discovered in certain low aspect ratio (stout) columns, where late post-buckling straightening was observed despite continuous monotonic loading. Thus, these behaviors are some of the challenging phenomena which must be captured when developing SMA constitutive models and executing structural simulations.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  3. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0020-7683; 661754
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Journal of Solids and Structures
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: International Journal of Solids and Structures; Journal ID: ISSN 0020-7683
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOD; US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; SMA; beam; buckling; bending; tension; compression; experiment; rod; tube; NiTi; superelastic
OSTI Identifier: