skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Quantifying fine particle emission events from time-resolved measurements: Method description and application to 18 California low-income apartments

Abstract

PM 2.5 exposure is associated with significant health risk. Exposures in homes derive from both outdoor and indoor sources, with emissions occurring primarily in discrete events. Data on emission event magnitudes and schedules are needed to support simulation-based studies of exposures and mitigations. For this study, we applied an identification and characterization algorithm to quantify time-resolved PM 2.5 emission events from data collected during 224 days of monitoring in 18 California apartments with low-income residents. We identified and characterized 836 distinct events with median and mean values of 12 and 30 mg emitted mass, 16 and 23 minutes emission duration, 37 and 103 mg/h emission rates, and pseudo-first–order decay rates of 1.3 and 2.0/h. Mean event-averaged concentrations calculated using the determined event characteristics agreed to within 6% of measured values for 14 of the apartments. There were variations in event schedules and emitted mass across homes, with few events overnight and most emissions occurring during late afternoons and evenings. Event characteristics were similar during weekdays and weekends. Emitted mass was positively correlated with number of residents (Spearman coefficient, ρ=.10), bedrooms (ρ=.08), house volume (ρ=.29), and indoor-outdoor CO 2 difference (ρ=.27). The event schedules can be used in probabilistic modeling of PM 2.5 in low-incomemore » apartments.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group, Sustainable Energy and Environmental Systems Dept., Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division, Whole Building Systems Dept. and Building Technologies and Urban Systems Division
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Whole Building Systems Dept., Building Technologies and Urban Systems Division
  3. San Diego State Univ., CA (United States). Center for Behavioral Epidemiology and Community Health (C-BEACH) and Graduate School of Public Health
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group, Sustainable Energy and Environmental Systems Dept. and Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division
  5. R2M Solution Srl, Pavia (Italy)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Building Technologies Office (EE-5B); US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); US Dept. of Housing and Urban Development (HUD); California Energy Commission
OSTI Identifier:
1432240
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1396420
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; I‐PHI‐01070; DW‐89‐9232201‐7; 500‐09‐022
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Indoor Air
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 28; Journal Issue: 1; Related Information: © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd; Journal ID: ISSN 0905-6947
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; cooking; exposure; multifamily; PM2.5; residential

Citation Formats

Chan, W. R., Logue, J. M., Wu, X., Klepeis, N. E., Fisk, W. J., Noris, F., and Singer, B. C. Quantifying fine particle emission events from time-resolved measurements: Method description and application to 18 California low-income apartments. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1111/ina.12425.
Chan, W. R., Logue, J. M., Wu, X., Klepeis, N. E., Fisk, W. J., Noris, F., & Singer, B. C. Quantifying fine particle emission events from time-resolved measurements: Method description and application to 18 California low-income apartments. United States. doi:10.1111/ina.12425.
Chan, W. R., Logue, J. M., Wu, X., Klepeis, N. E., Fisk, W. J., Noris, F., and Singer, B. C. Wed . "Quantifying fine particle emission events from time-resolved measurements: Method description and application to 18 California low-income apartments". United States. doi:10.1111/ina.12425. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1432240.
@article{osti_1432240,
title = {Quantifying fine particle emission events from time-resolved measurements: Method description and application to 18 California low-income apartments},
author = {Chan, W. R. and Logue, J. M. and Wu, X. and Klepeis, N. E. and Fisk, W. J. and Noris, F. and Singer, B. C.},
abstractNote = {PM2.5 exposure is associated with significant health risk. Exposures in homes derive from both outdoor and indoor sources, with emissions occurring primarily in discrete events. Data on emission event magnitudes and schedules are needed to support simulation-based studies of exposures and mitigations. For this study, we applied an identification and characterization algorithm to quantify time-resolved PM2.5 emission events from data collected during 224 days of monitoring in 18 California apartments with low-income residents. We identified and characterized 836 distinct events with median and mean values of 12 and 30 mg emitted mass, 16 and 23 minutes emission duration, 37 and 103 mg/h emission rates, and pseudo-first–order decay rates of 1.3 and 2.0/h. Mean event-averaged concentrations calculated using the determined event characteristics agreed to within 6% of measured values for 14 of the apartments. There were variations in event schedules and emitted mass across homes, with few events overnight and most emissions occurring during late afternoons and evenings. Event characteristics were similar during weekdays and weekends. Emitted mass was positively correlated with number of residents (Spearman coefficient, ρ=.10), bedrooms (ρ=.08), house volume (ρ=.29), and indoor-outdoor CO2 difference (ρ=.27). The event schedules can be used in probabilistic modeling of PM2.5 in low-income apartments.},
doi = {10.1111/ina.12425},
journal = {Indoor Air},
number = 1,
volume = 28,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Health benefits and costs of filtration interventions that reduce indoor exposure to PM2.5 during wildfires
journal, March 2016


Quantifying the contribution of ambient and indoor-generated fine particles to indoor air in residential environments
journal, January 2014

  • MacNeill, M.; Kearney, J.; Wallace, L.
  • Indoor Air, Vol. 24, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/ina.12084

Characterization of Indoor Particle Sources Using Continuous Mass and Size Monitors
journal, July 2000

  • Long, Christopher M.; Suh, Helen H.; Koutrakis, Petros
  • Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 50, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1080/10473289.2000.10464154

Effects on heart rate variability by artificially generated indoor nano-sized particles in a chamber study
journal, May 2014


Fine and Ultrafine Particle Decay Rates in Multiple Homes
journal, November 2013

  • Wallace, Lance; Kindzierski, Warren; Kearney, Jill
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 47, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1021/es402580t

Characteristics of particles and black carbon emitted by combustion of incenses, candles and anti-mosquito products
journal, October 2012


Effects of the exposure to indoor cooking-generated particles on nitric oxide exhaled by women
journal, February 2015


A Method to Estimate the Chronic Health Impact of Air Pollutants in U.S. Residences
journal, February 2012

  • Logue, Jennifer M.; Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.
  • Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 120, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1104035

The benefits of whole-house in-duct air cleaning in reducing exposures to fine particulate matter of outdoor origin: A modeling analysis
journal, March 2009

  • MacIntosh, David L.; Minegishi, Taeko; Kaufman, Matthew
  • Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, Vol. 20, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/jes.2009.16

Indoor Air Quality in Green Vs Conventional Multifamily Low-Income Housing
journal, June 2014

  • Colton, Meryl D.; MacNaughton, Piers; Vallarino, Jose
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 48, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1021/es501489u

PM 2.5 of Ambient Origin:  Estimates and Exposure Errors Relevant to PM Epidemiology
journal, July 2005

  • Meng, Qing Yu; Turpin, Barbara J.; Polidori, Andrea
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1021/es048226f

Elevated personal exposure to particulate matter from human activities in a residence
journal, April 2004

  • Ferro, Andrea R.; Kopperud, Royal J.; Hildemann, Lynn M.
  • Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, Vol. 14, Issue S1
  • DOI: 10.1038/sj.jea.7500356

Validation of continuous particle monitors for personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures
journal, May 2010

  • Wallace, Lance A.; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Kearney, Jill
  • Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, Vol. 21, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/jes.2010.15

Characterization of particulate matter concentrations during controlled indoor activities
journal, April 2010


Common household activities are associated with elevated particulate matter concentrations in bedrooms of inner-city Baltimore pre-school children
journal, February 2008


Sources of indoor air pollution in New York City residences of asthmatic children
journal, October 2013

  • Habre, Rima; Coull, Brent; Moshier, Erin
  • Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, Vol. 24, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/jes.2013.74

Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments
journal, June 2013


MALDIquant: a versatile R package for the analysis of mass spectrometry data
journal, July 2012


Characterization of indoor particle sources: A study conducted in the metropolitan Boston area.
journal, January 2000

  • Abt, E.; Suh, H. H.; Allen, G.
  • Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 108, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1289/ehp.0010835

Cardiovascular and lung function in relation to outdoor and indoor exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in middle-aged subjects
journal, December 2014


Particle size characterization and emission rates during indoor activities in a house
journal, July 2006


Characterization of indoor sources of fine and ultrafine particles: a study conducted in a full-scale chamber
journal, April 2005


Evaluating the Long-Term Health and Economic Impacts of Central Residential Air Filtration for Reducing Premature Mortality Associated with Indoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) of Outdoor Origin
journal, July 2015

  • Zhao, Dan; Azimi, Parham; Stephens, Brent
  • International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 12, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.3390/ijerph120708448

Particle Resuspension During the Use of Vacuum Cleaners on Residential Carpet
journal, April 2008

  • Corsi, Richard L.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Chiang, Chunyi
  • Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Vol. 5, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1080/15459620801901165

Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke
journal, July 2006


Source Strengths for Indoor Human Activities that Resuspend Particulate Matter
journal, March 2004

  • Ferro, Andrea R.; Kopperud, Royal J.; Hildemann, Lynn M.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 38, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/es0263893

Indoor particle dynamics
journal, August 2004


Determinants of indoor and personal exposure to PM2.5 of indoor and outdoor origin during the RIOPA study
journal, November 2009


Distributions of PM 2.5 Source Strengths for Cooking from the Research Triangle Park Particulate Matter Panel Study
journal, January 2006

  • Olson, David A.; Burke, Janet M.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 40, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/es050359t

The effects of ozone/limonene reactions on indoor secondary organic aerosols
journal, February 2007


Particle concentrations in inner-city homes of children with asthma: the effect of smoking, cooking, and outdoor pollution.
journal, July 2003

  • Wallace, Lance A.; Mitchell, Herman; O'Connor, George T.
  • Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 111, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1289/ehp.6135

A comparison of two direct-reading aerosol monitors with the federal reference method for PM2.5 in indoor air
journal, January 2002


Exposure assessment of particulate matter for susceptible populations in Seattle.
journal, June 2003

  • Liu, L-J Sally; Box, Michael; Kalman, David
  • Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 111, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1289/ehp.6011

Evaluation of building characteristics in 27 dwellings in Denmark and the effect of using particle filtration units on PM2.5 concentrations
journal, March 2014


Particle emission factors during cooking activities
journal, June 2009


Factors influencing variability in the infiltration of PM2.5 mass and its components
journal, December 2012


Indoor environmental quality benefits of apartment energy retrofits
journal, October 2013


Respiratory Effects of Fine and Ultrafine Particles from Indoor Sources—A Randomized Sham-Controlled Exposure Study of Healthy Volunteers
journal, July 2014

  • Soppa, Vanessa; Schins, Roel; Hennig, Frauke
  • International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 11, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.3390/ijerph110706871

The effects of PM2.5 and its components from indoor and outdoor sources on cough and wheeze symptoms in asthmatic children
journal, April 2014

  • Habre, Rima; Moshier, Erin; Castro, William
  • Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, Vol. 24, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/jes.2014.21

Real-time particle monitor calibration factors and PM2.5 emission factors for multiple indoor sources
journal, January 2013

  • Dacunto, Philip J.; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana
  • Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, Vol. 15, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3em00209h

Use of Real-Time Light Scattering Data To Estimate the Contribution of Infiltrated and Indoor-Generated Particles to Indoor Air
journal, August 2003

  • Allen, Ryan; Larson, Timothy; Sheppard, Lianne
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 37, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1021/es021007e

Comparison of Short-Term Variations (15-Minute Averages) in Outdoor and Indoor PM 2.5 Concentrations
journal, July 2000

  • Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Adgate, John L.; Hill, Nicholas
  • Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 50, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1080/10473289.2000.10464160

Predictors of concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and particle constituents inside of lower socioeconomic status urban homes
journal, October 2006

  • Baxter, Lisa K.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Laden, Francine
  • Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, Vol. 17, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/sj.jes.7500532

Capture efficiency of cooking-related fine and ultrafine particles by residential exhaust hoods
journal, May 2014

  • Lunden, M. M.; Delp, W. W.; Singer, B. C.
  • Indoor Air, Vol. 25, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/ina.12118

Intake Fraction for Particulate Matter: Recommendations for Life Cycle Impact Assessment
journal, June 2011

  • Humbert, Sebastien; Marshall, Julian D.; Shaked, Shanna
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 45, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1021/es103563z

Particle deposition rates in residential houses
journal, July 2005


The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): a resource for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants
journal, July 2001

  • Klepeis, Neil E.; Nelson, William C.; Ott, Wayne R.
  • Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, Vol. 11, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/sj.jea.7500165