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Title: Quantitative imaging of carbon dimer precursor for nanomaterial synthesis in the carbon arc

Abstract

Delineating the dominant processes responsible for nanomaterial synthesis in a plasma environment requires measurements of the precursor species contributing to the growth of nanostructures. Here, we performed comprehensive measurements of spatial and temporal profiles of carbon dimers (C2) in sub-atmospheric-pressure carbon arc by laser-induced fluorescence. Measured spatial profiles of C2 coincide with the growth region of carbon nanotubes (Fang et al 2016 Carbon 107 273–80) and vary depending on the arc operation mode, which is determined by the discharge current and the ablation rate of the graphite anode. The C2 density profile exhibits large spatial and time variations due to motion of the arc core. A comparison of the experimental data with the 2D simulation results of self-consistent arc modeling shows good agreement. The model predicts well the main processes determining spatial profiles of carbon dimers (C2).

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  2. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division
OSTI Identifier:
1432195
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-09CH11466
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Plasma Sources Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1361-6595
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; arc nanomaterial synthesis; laser induced fluorescence; atmospheric plasma diagnostic; arc discharge

Citation Formats

Vekselman, V., Khrabry, A., Kaganovich, I., Stratton, B., Selinsky, R. S., and Raitses, Y. Quantitative imaging of carbon dimer precursor for nanomaterial synthesis in the carbon arc. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1088/1361-6595/aaa735.
Vekselman, V., Khrabry, A., Kaganovich, I., Stratton, B., Selinsky, R. S., & Raitses, Y. Quantitative imaging of carbon dimer precursor for nanomaterial synthesis in the carbon arc. United States. doi:10.1088/1361-6595/aaa735.
Vekselman, V., Khrabry, A., Kaganovich, I., Stratton, B., Selinsky, R. S., and Raitses, Y. Tue . "Quantitative imaging of carbon dimer precursor for nanomaterial synthesis in the carbon arc". United States. doi:10.1088/1361-6595/aaa735. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1432195.
@article{osti_1432195,
title = {Quantitative imaging of carbon dimer precursor for nanomaterial synthesis in the carbon arc},
author = {Vekselman, V. and Khrabry, A. and Kaganovich, I. and Stratton, B. and Selinsky, R. S. and Raitses, Y.},
abstractNote = {Delineating the dominant processes responsible for nanomaterial synthesis in a plasma environment requires measurements of the precursor species contributing to the growth of nanostructures. Here, we performed comprehensive measurements of spatial and temporal profiles of carbon dimers (C2) in sub-atmospheric-pressure carbon arc by laser-induced fluorescence. Measured spatial profiles of C2 coincide with the growth region of carbon nanotubes (Fang et al 2016 Carbon 107 273–80) and vary depending on the arc operation mode, which is determined by the discharge current and the ablation rate of the graphite anode. The C2 density profile exhibits large spatial and time variations due to motion of the arc core. A comparison of the experimental data with the 2D simulation results of self-consistent arc modeling shows good agreement. The model predicts well the main processes determining spatial profiles of carbon dimers (C2).},
doi = {10.1088/1361-6595/aaa735},
journal = {Plasma Sources Science and Technology},
number = 2,
volume = 27,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Quantitative imaging of carbon dimer precursor for nanomaterial synthesis in the carbon arc
dataset, January 2018

  • Vekselman, V.; Khrabry, A.; Kaganovich, I.
  • Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
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“Synthesis-on” and “synthesis-off” modes of carbon arc operation during synthesis of carbon nanotubes
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Detection of nanoparticles in carbon arc discharge with laser-induced incandescence
    journal, June 2017


    Cooling effect on the growth of carbon nanotubes and optical emission spectroscopy in short-period arc-discharge
    journal, October 2004


    Spatial Evolutions of Co and Ni Atoms During Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Formation: Measurements and Modeling
    journal, May 2006

    • Cau, M.; Dorval, N.; Cao, B.
    • Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol. 6, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2006.178

    Morphological changes in carbon nanohorns under stress: a combined Raman spectroscopy and TEM study
    journal, January 2016

    • Peña-Álvarez, Miriam; Corro, Elena del; Langa, Fernando
    • RSC Advances, Vol. 6, Issue 55
    • DOI: 10.1039/c5ra27162b

    Determining synthesis region of the single wall carbon nanotubes in arc plasma volume
    journal, October 2016


    Single-step synthesis and magnetic separation of graphene and carbon nanotubes in arc discharge plasmas
    journal, January 2010

    • Volotskova, O.; Levchenko, I.; Shashurin, A.
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 2, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00416b

    Raman spectroscopy of amorphous, nanostructured, diamond–like carbon, and nanodiamond
    journal, September 2004

    • Ferrari, Andrea Carlo; Robertson, John
    • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 362, Issue 1824
    • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2004.1452

    Carbon arc plasma doped with Fe and Co/Ni: Spectroscopy and formation of carbon nanostructures
    conference, January 1999

    • Huczko, Andrzej; Lange, Hubert; Byszewski, Przemysław
    • ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF NOVEL MATERIALS--SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF MOLECULAR NANOSTRUCTURES, The 13th international winterschool on electronic properties of novel materials- science and technology of molecular nanostructures
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.59793

    Effects of Precursor Type on the CVD Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
    journal, May 2013

    • Gómez-Gualdrón, Diego A.; Beetge, Jenni M.; Burgos, Juan C.
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 117, Issue 20
    • DOI: 10.1021/jp3125236

    Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon
    journal, November 1991


    Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy of Carbon Arc Plasma during Formation of Carbon Magnetic Encapsulates
    conference, January 2011

    • Lange, H.; Łabędź, O.; Huczko, A.
    • DUSTY∕COMPLEX PLASMAS: BASIC AND INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH: Sixth International Conference on the Physics of Dusty Plasmas, AIP Conference Proceedings
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3659803

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    journal, November 2009

    • Vekselman, V.; Gleizer, J.; Yatom, S.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 16, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3263696

    Single-shell carbon nanotubes of 1-nm diameter
    journal, June 1993

    • Iijima, Sumio; Ichihashi, Toshinari
    • Nature, Vol. 363, Issue 6430
    • DOI: 10.1038/363603a0

    Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanotubes
    journal, March 2005


    Investigation of the short argon arc with hot anode. I. Numerical simulations of non-equilibrium effects in the near-electrode regions
    journal, January 2018

    • Khrabry, A.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Nemchinsky, V.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 25, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5007082

    Self-organisation processes in the carbon arc for nanosynthesis
    journal, February 2015

    • Ng, J.; Raitses, Y.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 117, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4906784

    Carbon Arc Plasma as a Source of Nanotubes: Emission Spectroscopy and Formation Mechanism
    journal, February 2003

    • Lange, H.; Huczko, A.; Sioda, M.
    • Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol. 3, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2003.191

    Quantitative imaging of carbon dimer precursor for nanomaterial synthesis in the carbon arc
    dataset, January 2018

    • Vekselman, V.; Khrabry, A.; Kaganovich, I.
    • Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
    • DOI: 10.11578/1562009

    “Synthesis-on” and “synthesis-off” modes of carbon arc operation during synthesis of carbon nanotubes
    journal, December 2017


    Spectral Diagnostics of Helium-Carbon Arc Plasma During Carbon Nanostructure Formation
    journal, October 1997


    Arc discharge synthesis of carbon nanotubes: Comprehensive review
    journal, November 2014


    Large-scale production of single-walled carbon nanotubes by the electric-arc technique
    journal, August 1997

    • Journet, C.; Maser, W. K.; Bernier, P.
    • Nature, Vol. 388, Issue 6644, p. 756-758
    • DOI: 10.1038/41972

    Lifetime measurements on single vibrational levels of C2(d 3Πg) by laser fluorescence excitation
    journal, May 1976


    The Mechanism of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Growth and Chirality Selection Induced by Carbon Atom and Dimer Addition
    journal, January 2010

    • Wang, Qiang; Ng, Man-Fai; Yang, Shuo-Wang
    • ACS Nano, Vol. 4, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1021/nn901761u

    Low-temperature plasmas in carbon nanostructure synthesis
    journal, September 2013

    • Levchenko, Igor; Keidar, Michael; Xu, Shuyan
    • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics: Materials, Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena, Vol. 31, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1116/1.4821635

    <I>In-Situ</I> Optical Analysis of the Gas Phase during the Formation of Carbon Nanotubes
    journal, April 2004

    • Dorval, N.; Foutel-Richard, A.; Cau, M.
    • Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol. 4, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2004.060