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Title: A sensitive EUV Schwarzschild microscope for plasma studies with sub-micrometer resolution

Abstract

We present an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) microscope using a Schwarzschild objective which is optimized for single-shot sub-micrometer imaging of laser-plasma targets. The microscope has been designed and constructed for imaging the scattering from an EUV-heated solid-density hydrogen jet. Here, imaging of a cryogenic hydrogen target was demonstrated using single pulses of the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) free-electron laser at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. In a single exposure, we observe a hydrogen jet with ice fragments with a spatial resolution in the sub-micrometer range. In situ EUV imaging is expected to enable novel experimental capabilities for warm dense matter studies of micrometer-sized samples in laser-plasma experiments.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [3];  [7];  [8];  [7];  [9];  [1];  [1];  [10];  [6]; ORCiD logo [11];  [7];  [12] more »;  [6];  [6];  [3];  [3];  [13];  [14];  [8]; ORCiD logo [15];  [6];  [13];  [8];  [14];  [7];  [12] « less
  1. European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL), Schenefeld (Germany)
  2. Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Optics and Quantum Electronics; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Helmholtz Inst. Jena, Jena (Germany)
  3. optiX fab GmbH, Jena (Germany)
  4. China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China)
  5. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  6. Univ. of Rostock (Germany). Inst. fur Physik
  7. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  8. Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Optics and Quantum Electronics; Helmholtz Inst. Jena, Jena (Germany)
  9. Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom). Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Dept. of Physics
  10. Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics
  11. Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging CUI, Hamburg (Germany)
  12. Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab., Dept. of Physics
  13. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  14. Westfalische Wilhelms-Univ., Munster (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.
  15. Univ. of Rostock (Germany). Inst. fur Physik; Tanta Univ., Tanta (Egypt). Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Science
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES); Volkswagen Foundation
OSTI Identifier:
1430988
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1419609
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-740214
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748; TRN: US1802639
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; 654220; FWP100182
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 89; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION

Citation Formats

Zastrau, U., Rodel, C., Nakatsutsumi, M., Feigl, T., Appel, K., Chen, B., Doppner, T., Fennel, T., Fiedler, T., Fletcher, L. B., Forster, E., Gamboa, E., Gericke, D. O., Gode, S., Grote-Fortmann, C., Hilbert, V., Kazak, L., Laarmann, T., Lee, H. J., Mabey, P., Martinez, F., Meiwes-Broer, K. -H., Pauer, H., Perske, M., Przystawik, A., Roling, S., Skruszewicz, S., Shihab, M., Tiggesbaumker, J., Toleikis, S., Wunsche, M., Zacharias, H., Glenzer, S. H., and Gregori, G. A sensitive EUV Schwarzschild microscope for plasma studies with sub-micrometer resolution. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5007950.
Zastrau, U., Rodel, C., Nakatsutsumi, M., Feigl, T., Appel, K., Chen, B., Doppner, T., Fennel, T., Fiedler, T., Fletcher, L. B., Forster, E., Gamboa, E., Gericke, D. O., Gode, S., Grote-Fortmann, C., Hilbert, V., Kazak, L., Laarmann, T., Lee, H. J., Mabey, P., Martinez, F., Meiwes-Broer, K. -H., Pauer, H., Perske, M., Przystawik, A., Roling, S., Skruszewicz, S., Shihab, M., Tiggesbaumker, J., Toleikis, S., Wunsche, M., Zacharias, H., Glenzer, S. H., & Gregori, G. A sensitive EUV Schwarzschild microscope for plasma studies with sub-micrometer resolution. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5007950.
Zastrau, U., Rodel, C., Nakatsutsumi, M., Feigl, T., Appel, K., Chen, B., Doppner, T., Fennel, T., Fiedler, T., Fletcher, L. B., Forster, E., Gamboa, E., Gericke, D. O., Gode, S., Grote-Fortmann, C., Hilbert, V., Kazak, L., Laarmann, T., Lee, H. J., Mabey, P., Martinez, F., Meiwes-Broer, K. -H., Pauer, H., Perske, M., Przystawik, A., Roling, S., Skruszewicz, S., Shihab, M., Tiggesbaumker, J., Toleikis, S., Wunsche, M., Zacharias, H., Glenzer, S. H., and Gregori, G. Mon . "A sensitive EUV Schwarzschild microscope for plasma studies with sub-micrometer resolution". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5007950. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1430988.
@article{osti_1430988,
title = {A sensitive EUV Schwarzschild microscope for plasma studies with sub-micrometer resolution},
author = {Zastrau, U. and Rodel, C. and Nakatsutsumi, M. and Feigl, T. and Appel, K. and Chen, B. and Doppner, T. and Fennel, T. and Fiedler, T. and Fletcher, L. B. and Forster, E. and Gamboa, E. and Gericke, D. O. and Gode, S. and Grote-Fortmann, C. and Hilbert, V. and Kazak, L. and Laarmann, T. and Lee, H. J. and Mabey, P. and Martinez, F. and Meiwes-Broer, K. -H. and Pauer, H. and Perske, M. and Przystawik, A. and Roling, S. and Skruszewicz, S. and Shihab, M. and Tiggesbaumker, J. and Toleikis, S. and Wunsche, M. and Zacharias, H. and Glenzer, S. H. and Gregori, G.},
abstractNote = {We present an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) microscope using a Schwarzschild objective which is optimized for single-shot sub-micrometer imaging of laser-plasma targets. The microscope has been designed and constructed for imaging the scattering from an EUV-heated solid-density hydrogen jet. Here, imaging of a cryogenic hydrogen target was demonstrated using single pulses of the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) free-electron laser at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. In a single exposure, we observe a hydrogen jet with ice fragments with a spatial resolution in the sub-micrometer range. In situ EUV imaging is expected to enable novel experimental capabilities for warm dense matter studies of micrometer-sized samples in laser-plasma experiments.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5007950},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 2,
volume = 89,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Schematics of a Schwarzschild objective.

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Works referenced in this record:

Schwarzschild objective for soft x-rays
journal, August 2000


Probing near-solid density plasmas using soft x-ray scattering
journal, September 2010

  • Toleikis, S.; Bornath, T.; Döppner, T.
  • Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol. 43, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/43/19/194017

Operation of a free-electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window
journal, June 2007


Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation
journal, June 2001


Observation of Ultrafast Nonequilibrium Collective Dynamics in Warm Dense Hydrogen
journal, March 2010


Efficient laser-driven proton acceleration from cylindrical and planar cryogenic hydrogen jets
journal, August 2017


High repetition rate, multi-MeV proton source from cryogenic hydrogen jets
journal, September 2017

  • Gauthier, M.; Curry, C. B.; Göde, S.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 111, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4990487

Spatial characterization of the focus produced by an EUV Schwarzschild objective
journal, April 2014


Thomson scattering from near-solid density plasmas using soft X-ray free electron lasers
journal, May 2007


Relativistic Electron Streaming Instabilities Modulate Proton Beams Accelerated in Laser-Plasma Interactions
journal, May 2017


New experimental platform to study high density laser-compressed matter
journal, November 2014

  • Gauthier, M.; Fletcher, L. B.; Ravasio, A.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 85, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4896175

Soft X-ray scattering using FEL radiation for probing near-solid density plasmas at few electron volt temperatures
journal, January 2010


Formation and direct writing of color centers in LiF using a laser-induced extreme ultraviolet plasma in combination with a Schwarzschild objective
journal, October 2005

  • Barkusky, Frank; Peth, Christian; Mann, Klaus
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 76, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2072147

Femtosecond laser-generated high-energy-density states studied by x-ray FELs
journal, November 2016


A 50nm spatial resolution EUV imaging–resolution dependence on object thickness and illumination bandwidth
journal, January 2011

  • Wachulak, Przemyslaw W.; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk
  • Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1364/oe.19.009541

Measurements of electron and proton heating temperatures from extreme-ultraviolet light images at 68eV in petawatt laser experiments
journal, November 2006

  • Gu, Peimin; Zhang, B.; Key, M. H.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 77, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2364137

Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments
journal, August 2016

  • Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 87, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4961089

The interaction of intense ultrashort laser pulses with cryogenic He planar jets
journal, February 2017

  • Shihab, M.; Bornath, Th; Redmer, R.
  • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 59, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6587/aa5c02

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    A sensitive EUV Schwarzschild microscope for plasma studies with sub-micrometer resolution
    text, January 2018

    • Zastrau, Ulf; Rödel, C.; Nakatsutsumi, M.
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2018-04107

    Ionization dynamics of dense matter generated by intense ultrashort X-ray pulses
    journal, February 2019

    • Shihab, Mohammed; Bornath, Thomas; Redmer, Ronald
    • Contributions to Plasma Physics, Vol. 59, Issue 4-5
    • DOI: 10.1002/ctpp.201800156

    Thomson scattering from near-solid density plasmas using soft X-ray free electron lasers
    journal, May 2007


    Soft X-ray scattering using FEL radiation for probing near-solid density plasmas at few electron volt temperatures
    journal, January 2010


    Operation of a free-electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window
    journal, June 2007


    Efficient laser-driven proton acceleration from cylindrical and planar cryogenic hydrogen jets
    journal, August 2017


    Formation and direct writing of color centers in LiF using a laser-induced extreme ultraviolet plasma in combination with a Schwarzschild objective
    journal, October 2005

    • Barkusky, Frank; Peth, Christian; Mann, Klaus
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 76, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2072147

    Measurements of electron and proton heating temperatures from extreme-ultraviolet light images at 68eV in petawatt laser experiments
    journal, November 2006

    • Gu, Peimin; Zhang, B.; Key, M. H.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 77, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2364137

    New experimental platform to study high density laser-compressed matter
    journal, November 2014

    • Gauthier, M.; Fletcher, L. B.; Ravasio, A.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 85, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4896175

    Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments
    journal, August 2016

    • Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 87, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4961089

    High repetition rate, multi-MeV proton source from cryogenic hydrogen jets
    journal, September 2017

    • Gauthier, M.; Curry, C. B.; Göde, S.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 111, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4990487

    Femtosecond laser-generated high-energy-density states studied by x-ray FELs
    journal, November 2016


    Probing near-solid density plasmas using soft x-ray scattering
    journal, September 2010

    • Toleikis, S.; Bornath, T.; Döppner, T.
    • Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol. 43, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/43/19/194017

    The interaction of intense ultrashort laser pulses with cryogenic He planar jets
    journal, February 2017

    • Shihab, M.; Bornath, Th; Redmer, R.
    • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 59, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6587/aa5c02

    Spatial characterization of the focus produced by an EUV Schwarzschild objective
    journal, April 2014


    Relativistic Electron Streaming Instabilities Modulate Proton Beams Accelerated in Laser-Plasma Interactions
    journal, May 2017


    Schwarzschild objective for soft x-rays
    journal, August 2000


    Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation
    journal, June 2001


    A 50nm spatial resolution EUV imaging–resolution dependence on object thickness and illumination bandwidth
    journal, January 2011

    • Wachulak, Przemyslaw W.; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk
    • Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1364/oe.19.009541

    Ionization dynamics of dense matter generated by intense ultrashort X-ray pulses
    journal, February 2019

    • Shihab, Mohammed; Bornath, Thomas; Redmer, Ronald
    • Contributions to Plasma Physics, Vol. 59, Issue 4-5
    • DOI: 10.1002/ctpp.201800156

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