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Title: Rechargeable Zinc Alkaline Anodes for Long-Cycle Energy Storage

Abstract

Zinc alkaline anodes command significant share of consumer battery markets and are a key technology for the emerging grid-scale battery market. Improved understanding of this electrode is required for long-cycle deployments at kWh and MWh scale due to strict requirements on performance, cost, and safety. For this article, we give a modern literature survey of zinc alkaline anodes with levelized performance metrics and also present an experimental assessment of leading formulations. Long-cycle materials characterization, performance metrics, and failure analysis are reported for over 25 unique anode formulations with up to 1500 cycles and ~1.5 years of shelf life per test. Statistical repeatability of these measurements is made for a baseline design (fewest additives) via 15 duplicates. Baseline design capacity density is 38 mAh per mL of anode volume, and lifetime throughput is 72 Ah per mL of anode volume. We then report identical measurements for anodes with improved material properties via additives and other perturbations, some of which achieve capacity density over 192 mAh per mL of anode volume and lifetime throughput of 190 Ah per mL of anode volume. Novel in operando X-ray microscopy of a cycling zinc paste anode reveals the formation of a nanoscale zinc material thatmore » cycles electrochemically and replaces the original anode structure over long-cycle life. Ex situ elemental mapping and other materials characterization suggest that the key physical processes are hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), growth of zinc oxide nanoscale material, concentration deficits of OH and ZnOH 4 2–, and electrodeposition of Zn growths outside and through separator membranes.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States). Energy Inst.
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E)
OSTI Identifier:
1430857
Report Number(s):
BNL-203377-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 0897-4756; TRN: US1802924
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; AR0000150
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Chemistry of Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 0897-4756
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Turney, Damon E., Gallaway, Joshua W., Yadav, Gautam G., Ramirez, Rodolfo, Nyce, Michael, Banerjee, Sanjoy, Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen, Wang, Jun, D'Ambrose, Michael J., Kolhekar, Snehal, Huang, Jinchao, and Wei, Xia. Rechargeable Zinc Alkaline Anodes for Long-Cycle Energy Storage. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00754.
Turney, Damon E., Gallaway, Joshua W., Yadav, Gautam G., Ramirez, Rodolfo, Nyce, Michael, Banerjee, Sanjoy, Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen, Wang, Jun, D'Ambrose, Michael J., Kolhekar, Snehal, Huang, Jinchao, & Wei, Xia. Rechargeable Zinc Alkaline Anodes for Long-Cycle Energy Storage. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00754.
Turney, Damon E., Gallaway, Joshua W., Yadav, Gautam G., Ramirez, Rodolfo, Nyce, Michael, Banerjee, Sanjoy, Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen, Wang, Jun, D'Ambrose, Michael J., Kolhekar, Snehal, Huang, Jinchao, and Wei, Xia. Wed . "Rechargeable Zinc Alkaline Anodes for Long-Cycle Energy Storage". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00754. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1430857.
@article{osti_1430857,
title = {Rechargeable Zinc Alkaline Anodes for Long-Cycle Energy Storage},
author = {Turney, Damon E. and Gallaway, Joshua W. and Yadav, Gautam G. and Ramirez, Rodolfo and Nyce, Michael and Banerjee, Sanjoy and Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen and Wang, Jun and D'Ambrose, Michael J. and Kolhekar, Snehal and Huang, Jinchao and Wei, Xia},
abstractNote = {Zinc alkaline anodes command significant share of consumer battery markets and are a key technology for the emerging grid-scale battery market. Improved understanding of this electrode is required for long-cycle deployments at kWh and MWh scale due to strict requirements on performance, cost, and safety. For this article, we give a modern literature survey of zinc alkaline anodes with levelized performance metrics and also present an experimental assessment of leading formulations. Long-cycle materials characterization, performance metrics, and failure analysis are reported for over 25 unique anode formulations with up to 1500 cycles and ~1.5 years of shelf life per test. Statistical repeatability of these measurements is made for a baseline design (fewest additives) via 15 duplicates. Baseline design capacity density is 38 mAh per mL of anode volume, and lifetime throughput is 72 Ah per mL of anode volume. We then report identical measurements for anodes with improved material properties via additives and other perturbations, some of which achieve capacity density over 192 mAh per mL of anode volume and lifetime throughput of 190 Ah per mL of anode volume. Novel in operando X-ray microscopy of a cycling zinc paste anode reveals the formation of a nanoscale zinc material that cycles electrochemically and replaces the original anode structure over long-cycle life. Ex situ elemental mapping and other materials characterization suggest that the key physical processes are hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), growth of zinc oxide nanoscale material, concentration deficits of OH– and ZnOH42–, and electrodeposition of Zn growths outside and through separator membranes.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00754},
journal = {Chemistry of Materials},
number = 11,
volume = 29,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}

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