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Title: Supernova 1987A constraints on sub-GeV dark sectors, millicharged particles, the QCD axion, and an axion-like particle

Abstract

Here, we consider the constraints from Supernova 1987A on particles with small couplings to the Standard Model. We discuss a model with a fermion coupled to a dark photon, with various mass relations in the dark sector; millicharged particles; dark-sector fermions with inelastic transitions; the hadronic QCD axion; and an axion-like particle that couples to Standard Model fermions with couplings proportional to their mass. In the fermion cases, we develop a new diagnostic for assessing when such a particle is trapped at large mixing angles. Our bounds for a fermion coupled to a dark photon constrain small couplings and masses ≲ 200 MeV, and do not decouple for low fermion masses. They exclude parameter space that is otherwise unconstrained by existing accelerator-based and direct-detection searches. In addition, our bounds are complementary to proposed laboratory searches for sub-GeV dark matter, and do not constrain several benchmark-model targets in parameter space for which the dark matter obtains the correct relic abundance from interactions with the Standard Model. For a millicharged particle, we exclude charges between 10 –9–few×10 –6 in units of the electron charge, also for masses ≲ 200 MeV; this excludes parameter space to higher millicharges and masses than previous bounds.more » For the QCD axion and an axion-like particle, we apply several updated nuclear physics calculations and include the energy dependence of the optical depth to accurately account for energy loss at large couplings. These corrections allow us to rule out a hadronic axion of mass between 0.1 and a few hundred eV, or equivalently to put a bound on the scale of Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking between a few×10 4 and 10 8 GeV, closing the hadronic axion window. For an axion-like particle, our bounds disfavor decay constants between a few×10 5 GeV up to a few×10 8 GeV, for a mass ≲ 200 MeV. In all cases, our bounds differ from previous work by more than an order of magnitude across the entire parameter space. We also provide estimated systematic errors due to the uncertainties of the progenitor.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  2. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1429332
Report Number(s):
YITP-SB-18-01; FERMILAB-PUB-17-432-T; arXiv:1803.00993
Journal ID: ISSN 1029-8479; 1658479; TRN: US1802315
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of High Energy Physics (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of High Energy Physics (Online); Journal Volume: 2018; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 1029-8479
Publisher:
Springer Berlin
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; Beyond Standard Model; Thermal Field Theory

Citation Formats

Chang, Jae Hyeok, Essig, Rouven, and McDermott, Samuel D. Supernova 1987A constraints on sub-GeV dark sectors, millicharged particles, the QCD axion, and an axion-like particle. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/JHEP09(2018)051.
Chang, Jae Hyeok, Essig, Rouven, & McDermott, Samuel D. Supernova 1987A constraints on sub-GeV dark sectors, millicharged particles, the QCD axion, and an axion-like particle. United States. doi:10.1007/JHEP09(2018)051.
Chang, Jae Hyeok, Essig, Rouven, and McDermott, Samuel D. Mon . "Supernova 1987A constraints on sub-GeV dark sectors, millicharged particles, the QCD axion, and an axion-like particle". United States. doi:10.1007/JHEP09(2018)051. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1429332.
@article{osti_1429332,
title = {Supernova 1987A constraints on sub-GeV dark sectors, millicharged particles, the QCD axion, and an axion-like particle},
author = {Chang, Jae Hyeok and Essig, Rouven and McDermott, Samuel D.},
abstractNote = {Here, we consider the constraints from Supernova 1987A on particles with small couplings to the Standard Model. We discuss a model with a fermion coupled to a dark photon, with various mass relations in the dark sector; millicharged particles; dark-sector fermions with inelastic transitions; the hadronic QCD axion; and an axion-like particle that couples to Standard Model fermions with couplings proportional to their mass. In the fermion cases, we develop a new diagnostic for assessing when such a particle is trapped at large mixing angles. Our bounds for a fermion coupled to a dark photon constrain small couplings and masses ≲ 200 MeV, and do not decouple for low fermion masses. They exclude parameter space that is otherwise unconstrained by existing accelerator-based and direct-detection searches. In addition, our bounds are complementary to proposed laboratory searches for sub-GeV dark matter, and do not constrain several benchmark-model targets in parameter space for which the dark matter obtains the correct relic abundance from interactions with the Standard Model. For a millicharged particle, we exclude charges between 10–9–few×10–6 in units of the electron charge, also for masses ≲ 200 MeV; this excludes parameter space to higher millicharges and masses than previous bounds. For the QCD axion and an axion-like particle, we apply several updated nuclear physics calculations and include the energy dependence of the optical depth to accurately account for energy loss at large couplings. These corrections allow us to rule out a hadronic axion of mass between 0.1 and a few hundred eV, or equivalently to put a bound on the scale of Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking between a few×104 and 108 GeV, closing the hadronic axion window. For an axion-like particle, our bounds disfavor decay constants between a few×105 GeV up to a few×108 GeV, for a mass ≲ 200 MeV. In all cases, our bounds differ from previous work by more than an order of magnitude across the entire parameter space. We also provide estimated systematic errors due to the uncertainties of the progenitor.},
doi = {10.1007/JHEP09(2018)051},
journal = {Journal of High Energy Physics (Online)},
number = 9,
volume = 2018,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

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