skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Spin transport and spin torque in antiferromagnetic devices

Abstract

Ferromagnets are key materials for sensing and memory applications. In contrast, antiferromagnets which represent the more common form of magnetically ordered materials, have found less practical application beyond their use for establishing reference magnetic orientations via exchange bias. This might change in the future due to the recent progress in materials research and discoveries of antiferromagnetic spintronic phenomena suitable for device applications. Experimental demonstration of the electrical switching and detection of the Néel order open a route towards memory devices based on antiferromagnets. Apart from the radiation and magnetic-field hardness, memory cells fabricated from antiferromagnets can be inherently multilevel, which could be used for neuromorphic computing. Switching speeds attainable in antiferromagnets far exceed those of ferromagnetic and semiconductor memory technologies. Here we review the recent progress in electronic spin-transport and spin-torque phenomena in antiferromagnets that are dominantly of the relativistic quantum mechanical origin. We discuss their utility in pure antiferromagnetic or hybrid ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic memory devices.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Praha (Czech Republic)
  2. Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Praha (Czech Republic)
  3. Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy
  4. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Materials Science Division
  5. Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Center for Innovative Integrated Electronic Systems, Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication and WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division
OSTI Identifier:
1429310
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; Magnetic properties and materials; Spintronics

Citation Formats

Zelezny, J., Wadley, P., Olejnik, K., Hoffmann, A., and Ohno, H. Spin transport and spin torque in antiferromagnetic devices. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0062-7.
Zelezny, J., Wadley, P., Olejnik, K., Hoffmann, A., & Ohno, H. Spin transport and spin torque in antiferromagnetic devices. United States. doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0062-7.
Zelezny, J., Wadley, P., Olejnik, K., Hoffmann, A., and Ohno, H. Fri . "Spin transport and spin torque in antiferromagnetic devices". United States. doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0062-7. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1429310.
@article{osti_1429310,
title = {Spin transport and spin torque in antiferromagnetic devices},
author = {Zelezny, J. and Wadley, P. and Olejnik, K. and Hoffmann, A. and Ohno, H.},
abstractNote = {Ferromagnets are key materials for sensing and memory applications. In contrast, antiferromagnets which represent the more common form of magnetically ordered materials, have found less practical application beyond their use for establishing reference magnetic orientations via exchange bias. This might change in the future due to the recent progress in materials research and discoveries of antiferromagnetic spintronic phenomena suitable for device applications. Experimental demonstration of the electrical switching and detection of the Néel order open a route towards memory devices based on antiferromagnets. Apart from the radiation and magnetic-field hardness, memory cells fabricated from antiferromagnets can be inherently multilevel, which could be used for neuromorphic computing. Switching speeds attainable in antiferromagnets far exceed those of ferromagnetic and semiconductor memory technologies. Here we review the recent progress in electronic spin-transport and spin-torque phenomena in antiferromagnets that are dominantly of the relativistic quantum mechanical origin. We discuss their utility in pure antiferromagnetic or hybrid ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic memory devices.},
doi = {10.1038/s41567-018-0062-7},
journal = {Nature Physics},
number = 3,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 24 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Fig B1 Fig B1: a, The two states of a ferromagnetic spin valve or tunneling junction. b, 1d tight-binding model used by Duine et al. c, Chemically realistic antiferromagnetic tunneling junctions considered by Stamenova et al. d, Calculations by Saidaoui et al. for various spin valves, which show strong decrease of themore » torque in the presence of elastic scattering in the antiferromagnetic spin valves compared to a ferromagnetic one. Here, λ is the mean free path, L is the length of the spin valve, L0 correspond to 20 atomic sites and the inset shows normalized conductivities. „G-type“ and „layered“ corresponds to different types of antiferromagnetic spin valves.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

BiFeO 3 epitaxial thin films and devices: past, present and future
journal, October 2014


Spin-transfer interactions in exchange-biased spin valves
journal, April 2009

  • Wei, Zhen; Basset, Julien; Sharma, Amit
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 105, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3057951

Spin-Torque Switching with the Giant Spin Hall Effect of Tantalum
journal, May 2012


Device-size dependence of field-free spin-orbit torque induced magnetization switching in antiferromagnet/ferromagnet structures
journal, February 2017

  • Kurenkov, A.; Zhang, C.; DuttaGupta, S.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 110, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4977838

Writing and reading antiferromagnetic Mn2Au by Néel spin-orbit torques and large anisotropic magnetoresistance
journal, January 2018


Point-contact search for antiferromagnetic giant magnetoresistance
journal, April 2009

  • Wei, Zhen; Sharma, Amit; Bass, Jack
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 105, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3059615

Strain driven anisotropic magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic La 0.4 Sr 0.6 MnO 3
journal, August 2014

  • Wong, A. T.; Beekman, C.; Guo, H.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4892420

Spin Hall Effects in Metals
journal, October 2013


Non-collinear antiferromagnets and the anomalous Hall effect
journal, December 2014


Conductance and exchange coupling of two ferromagnets separated by a tunneling barrier
journal, April 1989


Current-Induced Spin Polarization in Strained Semiconductors
journal, October 2004


Multiple-stable anisotropic magnetoresistance memory in antiferromagnetic MnTe
journal, June 2016

  • Kriegner, D.; Výborný, K.; Olejník, K.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11623

Spin transfer torques
journal, April 2008


Spin-transfer pulse switching: From the dynamic to the thermally activated regime
journal, December 2010

  • Bedau, D.; Liu, H.; Sun, J. Z.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3532960

All-electrical manipulation of magnetization dynamics in a ferromagnet by antiferromagnets with anisotropic spin Hall effects
journal, October 2015


Current-Induced Switching of Perpendicularly Magnetized Magnetic Layers Using Spin Torque from the Spin Hall Effect
journal, August 2012


Spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic spin valves: From clean to disordered regimes
journal, May 2014

  • Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Manchon, Aurelien; Waintal, Xavier
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 89, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.174430

Current-Induced Torques Due to Compensated Antiferromagnets
journal, May 2008


Planar Hall effect in Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 /IrMn films
journal, December 2014

  • Zhang, X.; Zou, L. K.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4905038

First-principles spin-transfer torque in CuMnAs | GaP | CuMnAs junctions
journal, February 2017


Ultrafast magnetization switching by spin-orbit torques
journal, November 2014

  • Garello, Kevin; Avci, Can Onur; Miron, Ioan Mihai
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4902443

Giant magnetic tunneling effect in Fe/Al2O3/Fe junction
journal, January 1995


Perpendicular switching of a single ferromagnetic layer induced by in-plane current injection
journal, August 2011

  • Miron, Ioan Mihai; Garello, Kevin; Gaudin, Gilles
  • Nature, Vol. 476, Issue 7359
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature10309

Ultra-Fast and High-Reliability SOT-MRAM: From Cache Replacement to Normally-Off Computing
journal, January 2016

  • Prenat, Guillaume; Jabeur, Kotb; Vanhauwaert, Pierre
  • IEEE Transactions on Multi-Scale Computing Systems, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/TMSCS.2015.2509963

Giant Magnetoresistance of (001)Fe/(001)Cr Magnetic Superlattices
journal, November 1988


Spin-Polarized Current in Noncollinear Antiferromagnets
journal, November 2017


Anti-Ferromagnet Controlled Tunneling Magnetoresistance
journal, August 2014

  • Wang, Yuyan; Song, Cheng; Wang, Guangyue
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 24, Issue 43
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401659

Antiferromagnetic opto-spintronics
journal, March 2018


Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet
journal, January 2016


Strong spin Hall effect in the antiferromagnet PtMn
journal, June 2016


Experimental Observation of the Spin-Hall Effect in a Two-Dimensional Spin-Orbit Coupled Semiconductor System
journal, February 2005


Theory of nonequilibrium intrinsic spin torque in a single nanomagnet
journal, December 2008


Analogue spin–orbit torque device for artificial-neural-network-based associative memory operation
journal, December 2016

  • Borders, William A.; Akima, Hisanao; Fukami, Shunsuke
  • Applied Physics Express, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.7567/APEX.10.013007

Spin-Transfer Torques in Antiferromagnetic Metals from First Principles
journal, June 2008


Spin Pumping and Spin-Transfer Torques in Antiferromagnets
journal, July 2014


Spin-orbit coupling induced anisotropy effects in bimetallic antiferromagnets: A route towards antiferromagnetic spintronics
journal, June 2010


Field-free switching of perpendicular magnetization through spin–orbit torque in antiferromagnet/ferromagnet/oxide structures
journal, July 2016

  • Oh, Young-Wan; Chris Baek, Seung-heon; Kim, Y. M.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 11, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2016.109

Spin–orbit-driven ferromagnetic resonance
journal, May 2011

  • Fang, D.; Kurebayashi, H.; Wunderlich, J.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 6, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2011.68

Phenomenology of Current-Induced Dynamics in Antiferromagnets
journal, March 2011


Evidence for reversible control of magnetization in a ferromagnetic material by means of spin–orbit magnetic field
journal, August 2009

  • Chernyshov, Alexandr; Overby, Mason; Liu, Xinyu
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 5, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys1362

Symmetry and the macroscopic dynamics of antiferromagnetic materials in the presence of spin-polarized current
journal, April 2012


Current-induced torques between ferromagnets and compensated antiferromagnets: Symmetry and phase coherence effects
journal, February 2014


Antiferromagnetic spin textures and dynamics
journal, March 2018


Imaging Current-Induced Switching of Antiferromagnetic Domains in CuMnAs
journal, January 2017


Anomalous Hall Effect Arising from Noncollinear Antiferromagnetism
journal, January 2014


Robust spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions
journal, April 2017

  • Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Waintal, Xavier; Manchon, Aurélien
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 95, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.134424

Emission of spin waves by a magnetic multilayer traversed by a current
journal, October 1996


Antiferromagnetic Domain Wall Motion Driven by Spin-Orbit Torques
journal, August 2016


Spin-orbit torques in perpendicularly magnetized Ir22Mn78/Co20Fe60B20/MgO multilayer
journal, November 2016

  • Wu, Di; Yu, Guoqiang; Chen, Ching-Tzu
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 109, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4968785

The emergence of spin electronics in data storage
journal, November 2007

  • Chappert, Claude; Fert, Albert; Van Dau, Frédéric Nguyen
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2024

Magnetization switching by spin–orbit torque in an antiferromagnet–ferromagnet bilayer system
journal, February 2016

  • Fukami, Shunsuke; Zhang, Chaoliang; DuttaGupta, Samik
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 15, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4566

A spin-valve-like magnetoresistance of an antiferromagnet-based tunnel junction
journal, March 2011

  • Park, B. G.; Wunderlich, J.; Martí, X.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 10, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2983

Large inverse spin Hall effect in the antiferromagnetic metal Ir 20 Mn 80
journal, April 2014


Spin Hall Effects in Metallic Antiferromagnets
journal, November 2014


Large anomalous Hall effect in a non-collinear antiferromagnet at room temperature
journal, October 2015

  • Nakatsuji, Satoru; Kiyohara, Naoki; Higo, Tomoya
  • Nature, Vol. 527, Issue 7577
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature15723

Spin-dependent transport in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions
journal, September 2014

  • Merodio, P.; Kalitsov, A.; Béa, H.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4896291

Effect of Polarized Current on the Magnetic State of an Antiferromagnet
journal, July 2007


Spin-orbit torques in locally and globally noncentrosymmetric crystals: Antiferromagnets and ferromagnets
journal, January 2017


Spin diffusion and torques in disordered antiferromagnets
journal, February 2017


Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory
journal, January 2017

  • Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13985

Storing magnetic information in IrMn/MgO/Ta tunnel junctions via field-cooling
journal, May 2013

  • Petti, D.; Albisetti, E.; Reichlová, H.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4804429

Enhanced magnetoresistance in layered magnetic structures with antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange
journal, March 1989


Current-induced spin polarization at a single heterojunction
journal, December 2004

  • Silov, A. Yu.; Blajnov, P. A.; Wolter, J. H.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 85, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1833565

Large Magnetoresistance at Room Temperature in Ferromagnetic Thin Film Tunnel Junctions
journal, April 1995


Large anomalous Hall effect driven by a nonvanishing Berry curvature in the noncolinear antiferromagnet Mn 3 Ge
journal, April 2016

  • Nayak, Ajaya K.; Fischer, Julia Erika; Sun, Yan
  • Science Advances, Vol. 2, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501870

Inelastic scattering in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spin valves
journal, January 2007


Room-temperature spin–orbit torque in NiMnSb
journal, May 2016

  • Ciccarelli, C.; Anderson, L.; Tshitoyan, V.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3772

Exchange bias in nanostructures
journal, December 2005


Spin Hall effects
journal, October 2015

  • Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.
  • Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 87, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.87.1213

Anisotropic magnetoresistance in an antiferromagnetic semiconductor
journal, September 2014

  • Fina, I.; Marti, X.; Yi, D.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5671

Electrical manipulation of ferromagnetic NiFe by antiferromagnetic IrMn
journal, December 2015


Influence of a transport current on magnetic anisotropy in gyrotropic ferromagnets
journal, October 2009


Room-temperature antiferromagnetic memory resistor
journal, January 2014

  • Marti, X.; Fina, I.; Frontera, C.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 13, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3861

Magnetoresistance effect in antiferromagnet/nonmagnet/antiferromagnet multilayers
journal, October 2009

  • Wang, L.; Wang, S. G.; Rizwan, Syed
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3248223

Antiferromagnetic metal spintronics
journal, August 2011

  • MacDonald, A. H.; Tsoi, M.
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 369, Issue 1948
  • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2011.0014

Antiferromagnetic CuMnAs multi-level memory cell with microelectronic compatibility
journal, May 2017

  • Olejník, K.; Schuler, V.; Marti, X.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15434

Optical determination of the Néel vector in a CuMnAs thin-film antiferromagnet
journal, January 2017


Ab initio giant magnetoresistance and current-induced torques in Cr Au Cr multilayers
journal, May 2007


Spin-transfer torques in antiferromagnetic textures: Efficiency and quantification method
journal, August 2016


Sequential write-read operations in FeRh antiferromagnetic memory
journal, September 2015

  • Moriyama, Takahiro; Matsuzaki, Noriko; Kim, Kab-Jin
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 107, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4931567

Spin transfer and current-induced switching in antiferromagnets
journal, April 2010


Theory of spin torques and giant magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic metals
journal, June 2006


Tuning the direction of exchange bias in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayer by angular-dependent spin-polarized current
journal, October 2012

  • Tang, XiaoLi; Su, Hua; Zhang, Huai-Wu
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 112, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4757906

Current-induced torques in structures with ultrathin IrMn antiferromagnets
journal, October 2015


Relativistic Néel-Order Fields Induced by Electrical Current in Antiferromagnets
journal, October 2014


Changing Exchange Bias in Spin Valves with an Electric Current
journal, March 2007


Magnetoresistive memory technology
journal, August 1992


Inverse spin Hall effect in Cr: Independence of antiferromagnetic ordering
journal, July 2015


High Antiferromagnetic Domain Wall Velocity Induced by Néel Spin-Orbit Torques
journal, June 2016


Changing and reversing the exchange bias in a current-in-plane spin valve by means of an electric current
journal, September 2007

  • Tang, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Huai-Wu; Su, Hua
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2786592

Piezo-magnetoelectric effects in p -doped semiconductors
journal, July 2005


Current-induced torques in magnetic metals: Beyond spin-transfer
journal, April 2008

  • Haney, P. M.; Duine, R. A.; Núñez, A. S.
  • Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 320, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2007.12.020

    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.