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Title: An Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Lignin Renewable Skin with Programmable and Switchable Electrical Conductivity for Stress/Strain-Sensing Applications

We report an approach for programming electrical conductivity of a bio-based leathery skin devised with a layer of 60 nm metallic nanoparticles. Lignin-based renewable shape-memory materials were made, for the first time, to program and restore the materials’ electrical conductivity after repeated deformation up to 100% strain amplitude, at a temperature 60–115 °C above the glass transition temperature (T g) of the rubbery matrix. We cross-linked lignin macromolecules with an acrylonitrile–butadiene rubbery melt in high quantities ranging from 40 to 60 wt % and processed the resulting thermoplastics into thin films. Chemical and physical networks within the polymeric materials significantly enhanced key characteristics such as mechanical stiffness, strain fixity, and temperature-stimulated recovery of shape. The branched structures of the guaiacylpropane-dominant softwood lignin significantly improve the rubber’s T g and produced a film with stored and recoverable elastic work density that was an order of magnitude greater than those of the neat rubber and of samples made with syringylpropane-rich hardwood lignin. The devices could exhibit switching of conductivity before and after shape recovery.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science & Technology Division, Carbon and Composites Group
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Macromolecules
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 51; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0024-9297
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE
OSTI Identifier:
1429206

Nguyen, Ngoc A., Meek, Kelly M., Bowland, Christopher C., Barnes, Sietske H., and Naskar, Amit K.. An Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Lignin Renewable Skin with Programmable and Switchable Electrical Conductivity for Stress/Strain-Sensing Applications. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1021/acs.macromol.7b02336.
Nguyen, Ngoc A., Meek, Kelly M., Bowland, Christopher C., Barnes, Sietske H., & Naskar, Amit K.. An Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Lignin Renewable Skin with Programmable and Switchable Electrical Conductivity for Stress/Strain-Sensing Applications. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.macromol.7b02336.
Nguyen, Ngoc A., Meek, Kelly M., Bowland, Christopher C., Barnes, Sietske H., and Naskar, Amit K.. 2017. "An Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Lignin Renewable Skin with Programmable and Switchable Electrical Conductivity for Stress/Strain-Sensing Applications". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.macromol.7b02336.
@article{osti_1429206,
title = {An Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Lignin Renewable Skin with Programmable and Switchable Electrical Conductivity for Stress/Strain-Sensing Applications},
author = {Nguyen, Ngoc A. and Meek, Kelly M. and Bowland, Christopher C. and Barnes, Sietske H. and Naskar, Amit K.},
abstractNote = {We report an approach for programming electrical conductivity of a bio-based leathery skin devised with a layer of 60 nm metallic nanoparticles. Lignin-based renewable shape-memory materials were made, for the first time, to program and restore the materials’ electrical conductivity after repeated deformation up to 100% strain amplitude, at a temperature 60–115 °C above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the rubbery matrix. We cross-linked lignin macromolecules with an acrylonitrile–butadiene rubbery melt in high quantities ranging from 40 to 60 wt % and processed the resulting thermoplastics into thin films. Chemical and physical networks within the polymeric materials significantly enhanced key characteristics such as mechanical stiffness, strain fixity, and temperature-stimulated recovery of shape. The branched structures of the guaiacylpropane-dominant softwood lignin significantly improve the rubber’s Tg and produced a film with stored and recoverable elastic work density that was an order of magnitude greater than those of the neat rubber and of samples made with syringylpropane-rich hardwood lignin. The devices could exhibit switching of conductivity before and after shape recovery.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.macromol.7b02336},
journal = {Macromolecules},
number = 1,
volume = 51,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}