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Title: Transmission-line-circuit model of an 85-TW, 25-MA pulsed-power accelerator

Here, we have developed a physics-based transmission-line-circuit model of the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The 33-m-diameter Z machine generates a peak electrical power as high as 85 TW, and delivers as much as 25 MA to a physics load. The circuit model is used to design and analyze experiments conducted on Z. The model consists of 36 networks of transmission-line-circuit elements and resistors that represent each of Zs 36 modules. The model of each module includes a Marx generator, intermediate-energy-storage capacitor, laser-triggered gas switch, pulse-forming line, self-break water switches, and tri-plate transmission lines. The circuit model also includes elements that represent Zs water convolute, vacuum insulator stack, four parallel outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs), double-post-hole vacuum convolute, inner vacuum MITL, and physics load. Within the vacuum-transmission-line system the model conducts analytic calculations of current loss. To calculate the loss, the model simulates the following processes: (i) electron emission from MITL cathode surfaces wherever an electric-field threshold has been exceeded; (ii) electron loss in the MITLs before magnetic insulation has been established; (iii) flow of electrons emitted by the outer-MITL cathodes after insulation has been established; (iv) closure of MITL anode-cathode (AK) gaps due to expansion of cathode plasma; (v)more » energy loss to MITL conductors operated at high lineal current densities; (vi) heating of MITL-anode surfaces due to conduction current and deposition of electron kinetic energy; (vii) negative-space-charge-enhanced ion emission from MITL anode surfaces wherever an anode-surface-temperature threshold has been exceeded; and (viii) closure of MITL AK gaps due to expansion of anode plasma. The circuit model is expected to be most accurate when the fractional current loss is small. We have performed circuit simulations of 52 Z experiments conducted with a variety of accelerator configurations and load-impedance time histories. For these experiments, the apparent fractional current loss varies from 0% to 20%. Results of the circuit simulations agree with data acquired on 52 shots to within 2%.« less
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  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  2. L-3 Applied Technologies, San Leandro, CA (United States)
  3. Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C. (United States)
  4. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  5. Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9888; PRABCJ; 664473
Grant/Contract Number:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Accelerators and Beams
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 21; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9888
American Physical Society (APS)
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1457522