skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Investigating the Linear Dependence of Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing on Emission of Carbonaceous Aerosols in a Global Climate Model

Abstract

Herein, the relationship between forcing and emission is investigated for black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) emitted from North America and Asia. Direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF) of BC and OC are simulated with CAM5.1. Two diagnostics are introduced to aid policy-relevant discussions: linearity and emission-normalized forcing. DRF is linearly related to emission for both BC and OC from two regions, and the linear relationship is similar, within 15%. IRF is linear in emissions when emissions are lower and regions are far from sources (North American BC and OC). Indirect radiative forcing is sublinear for strong sources and near-source regions (Asian OC). Emission-normalized IRF in North America is two to four times higher than that in Asia. The difference among regions and species is primarily caused by particle density as high density of BC results in fewer emitted particles and by the processes for accumulation mode particles to become cloud condensation nuclei and then to activate into cloud droplet. Lower emission-normalized IRF in more polluted regions means that reductions of OC in these regions would be relatively climate-neutral rather than causing significant warming via IRF reduction. An optimal aggregation area (30° × 30°) is identifiedmore » for analysis of the forcing-to-emission relationship. For IRF, only 15–40% of the Earth’s surface is significantly affected by an emission region, but forcing in these regions comprises most of the global impact. Emission-normalized forcing can be used to estimate forcing changes due to emission reductions, as long as causes of nonlinearity are identified and considered.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USEPA; USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1427897
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1419402
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-126780
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X; KP1703020
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830; RD-83503401
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; carbonaceous aerosols; radiative forcing; emission

Citation Formats

Chen, Yanju, Wang, Hailong, Singh, Balwinder, Ma, Po‐Lun, Rasch, Philip J., and Bond, Tami C. Investigating the Linear Dependence of Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing on Emission of Carbonaceous Aerosols in a Global Climate Model. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JD027244.
Chen, Yanju, Wang, Hailong, Singh, Balwinder, Ma, Po‐Lun, Rasch, Philip J., & Bond, Tami C. Investigating the Linear Dependence of Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing on Emission of Carbonaceous Aerosols in a Global Climate Model. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027244.
Chen, Yanju, Wang, Hailong, Singh, Balwinder, Ma, Po‐Lun, Rasch, Philip J., and Bond, Tami C. Fri . "Investigating the Linear Dependence of Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing on Emission of Carbonaceous Aerosols in a Global Climate Model". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027244. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1427897.
@article{osti_1427897,
title = {Investigating the Linear Dependence of Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing on Emission of Carbonaceous Aerosols in a Global Climate Model},
author = {Chen, Yanju and Wang, Hailong and Singh, Balwinder and Ma, Po‐Lun and Rasch, Philip J. and Bond, Tami C.},
abstractNote = {Herein, the relationship between forcing and emission is investigated for black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) emitted from North America and Asia. Direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF) of BC and OC are simulated with CAM5.1. Two diagnostics are introduced to aid policy-relevant discussions: linearity and emission-normalized forcing. DRF is linearly related to emission for both BC and OC from two regions, and the linear relationship is similar, within 15%. IRF is linear in emissions when emissions are lower and regions are far from sources (North American BC and OC). Indirect radiative forcing is sublinear for strong sources and near-source regions (Asian OC). Emission-normalized IRF in North America is two to four times higher than that in Asia. The difference among regions and species is primarily caused by particle density as high density of BC results in fewer emitted particles and by the processes for accumulation mode particles to become cloud condensation nuclei and then to activate into cloud droplet. Lower emission-normalized IRF in more polluted regions means that reductions of OC in these regions would be relatively climate-neutral rather than causing significant warming via IRF reduction. An optimal aggregation area (30° × 30°) is identified for analysis of the forcing-to-emission relationship. For IRF, only 15–40% of the Earth’s surface is significantly affected by an emission region, but forcing in these regions comprises most of the global impact. Emission-normalized forcing can be used to estimate forcing changes due to emission reductions, as long as causes of nonlinearity are identified and considered.},
doi = {10.1002/2017JD027244},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = 3,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Can Reducing Black Carbon Emissions Counteract Global Warming?
journal, August 2005

  • Bond, Tami C.; Sun, Haolin
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1021/es0480421

Characteristics and sources of PM2.5 and carbonaceous species during winter in Taiyuan, China
journal, October 2007


Investigation on semi-direct and indirect climate effects of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol over China
journal, March 2013

  • Zhuang, Bingliang; Liu, Qian; Wang, Tijian
  • Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 114, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00704-013-0862-8

Radiative forcing and climate response
journal, March 1997

  • Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 102, Issue D6
  • DOI: 10.1029/96JD03436

Alternatives to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases
journal, February 2005


Attribution of climate forcing to economic sectors
journal, February 2010

  • Unger, Nadine; Bond, Tami C.; Wang, James S.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 107, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0906548107

Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: description and evaluation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5
journal, January 2012

  • Liu, X.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 5, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-5-709-2012

Host model uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates: results from the AeroCom Prescribed intercomparison study
journal, January 2013

  • Stier, P.; Schutgens, N. A. J.; Bellouin, N.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-3245-2013

Soot microphysical effects on liquid clouds, a multi-model investigation
journal, January 2011

  • Koch, D.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-1051-2011

Climate forcing by carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols
journal, October 1998


Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations
journal, January 2013

  • Shindell, D. T.; Lamarque, J. -F.; Schulz, M.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-2939-2013

Cloud susceptibility and the first aerosol indirect forcing: Sensitivity to black carbon and aerosol concentrations: CLOUD SUSCEPTIBILITY AND THE FIRST AEROSOL INDIRECT FORCING
journal, November 2002

  • Chuang, Catherine C.; Penner, Joyce E.; Prospero, Joseph M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 107, Issue D21
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JD000215

On the characteristics of aerosol indirect effect based on dynamic regimes in global climate models
journal, January 2016

  • Zhang, Shipeng; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 16, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-16-2765-2016

Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and Improving Human Health and Food Security
journal, January 2012


Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment: BLACK CARBON IN THE CLIMATE SYSTEM
journal, June 2013

  • Bond, T. C.; Doherty, S. J.; Fahey, D. W.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50171

Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability
journal, February 2016

  • Ghan, Steven; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Shipeng
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1514036113

Using a global aerosol model adjoint to unravel the footprint of spatially‐distributed emissions on cloud droplet number and cloud albedo
journal, December 2012

  • Karydis, V. A.; Capps, S. L.; Moore, R. H.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053346

The role of circulation features on black carbon transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5): BC TRANSPORT IN OFF-LINE CAM5
journal, May 2013

  • Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50411

Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon
journal, February 2015

  • Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 115, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr5006167

Will black carbon mitigation dampen aerosol indirect forcing?: BLACK CARBON MITIGATION
journal, May 2010

  • Chen, W. -T.; Lee, Y. H.; Adams, P. J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010GL042886

Air pollution radiative forcing from specific emissions sectors at 2030
journal, January 2008

  • Unger, Nadine; Shindell, Drew T.; Koch, Dorothy M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue D2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JD008683

Assessing the climatic benefits of black carbon mitigation
journal, June 2010

  • Kopp, R. E.; Mauzerall, D. L.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 107, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0909605107

Regional aerosol properties: Comparisons of boundary layer measurements from ACE 1, ACE 2, Aerosols99, INDOEX, ACE Asia, TARFOX, and NEAQS: REGIONAL AEROSOL PROPERTIES COMPARISON
journal, July 2005

  • Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 110, Issue D14
  • DOI: 10.1029/2004JD004755

Aerosols, Cloud Microphysics, and Fractional Cloudiness
journal, September 1989


The characteristics of PM2.5 in Beijing, China
journal, October 2001


Sensitivity of remote aerosol distributions to representation of cloud–aerosol interactions in a global climate model
journal, January 2013

  • Wang, H.; Easter, R. C.; Rasch, P. J.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 6, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-6-765-2013

Climate response of direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic black carbon
journal, January 2005


Sensitivity studies of different aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase clouds
journal, January 2009


A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols
journal, August 1996

  • Liousse, C.; Penner, J. E.; Chuang, C.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 101, Issue D14
  • DOI: 10.1029/95JD03426

Toward Reduced Representation of Mixing State for Simulating Aerosol Effects on Climate
journal, May 2017

  • Fierce, Laura; Riemer, Nicole; Bond, Tami C.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 98, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0028.1

The inportance of organic and elemental carbon in the fine atmospheric aerosol particles
journal, August 1999


Historical (1850–2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols: methodology and application
journal, January 2010

  • Lamarque, J. -F.; Bond, T. C.; Eyring, V.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-7017-2010

Development of the adjoint of GEOS-Chem
journal, January 2007

  • Henze, D. K.; Hakami, A.; Seinfeld, J. H.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-7-2413-2007

Global cloud condensation nuclei influenced by carbonaceous combustion aerosol
journal, January 2011

  • Spracklen, D. V.; Carslaw, K. S.; Pöschl, U.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-9067-2011

Carbon content of atmospheric aerosols in a residential area during the wood combustion season in Sweden
journal, October 2007


Soot and smoke aerosol may not warm climate: SOOT AND SMOKE AEROSOL MAY NOT WARM CLIMATE
journal, November 2003

  • Penner, Joyce E.; Zhang, Sophia Y.; Chuang, Catherine C.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 108, Issue D21
  • DOI: 10.1029/2003JD003409

The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system
journal, April 2011

  • Dee, D. P.; Uppala, S. M.; Simmons, A. J.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 656
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.828

A global modeling study on carbonaceous aerosol microphysical characteristics and radiative effects
journal, January 2010


Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols
journal, January 2006


Quantifying immediate radiative forcing by black carbon and organic matter with the Specific Forcing Pulse
journal, January 2011

  • Bond, T. C.; Zarzycki, C.; Flanner, M. G.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-1505-2011

Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario
journal, August 2000

  • Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 97, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.170278997

Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within AeroCom
journal, January 2006

  • Textor, C.; Schulz, M.; Guibert, S.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-6-1777-2006

Global distribution and climate forcing of carbonaceous aerosols
journal, January 2002


The global aerosol‐cloud first indirect effect estimated using MODIS, MERRA, and AeroCom
journal, February 2017

  • McCoy, D. T.; Bender, F. A. ‐M.; Mohrmann, J. K. C.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 122, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JD026141

Climate response to regional radiative forcing during the twentieth century
journal, March 2009

  • Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 2, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo473

Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon
journal, March 2008

  • Ramanathan, V.; Carmichael, G.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 1, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo156

The Influence of Pollution on the Shortwave Albedo of Clouds
journal, July 1977


Aerosol-cloud-climate interactions in the climate model CAM-Oslo
journal, May 2008


Airborne measurements of atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols during ACE-Asia: AIRBORNE MEASUREMENTS OF ATMOSPHERIC CARBONACEOUS AEROSOLS
journal, December 2002

  • Mader, Brian T.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 107, Issue D23
  • DOI: 10.1029/2002JD002221

Black carbon semi-direct effects on cloud cover: review and synthesis
journal, January 2010


Spatially Refined Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing Efficiencies
journal, August 2012

  • Henze, Daven K.; Shindell, Drew T.; Akhtar, Farhan
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 46, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1021/es301993s

Aerosol indirect effects – general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data
journal, January 2009


Residential Biofuels in South Asia: Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions and Climate Impacts
journal, March 2005


Emissions of primary aerosol and precursor gases in the years 2000 and 1750 prescribed data-sets for AeroCom
journal, January 2006

  • Dentener, F.; Kinne, S.; Bond, T.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-6-4321-2006

Insights into the role of soot aerosols in cirrus cloud formation
journal, January 2007

  • Kärcher, B.; Möhler, O.; DeMott, P. J.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-7-4203-2007

Intercomparison of the GOS approach, superposition T-matrix method, and laboratory measurements for black carbon optical properties during aging
journal, November 2016

  • He, Cenlin; Takano, Yoshi; Liou, Kuo-Nan
  • Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, Vol. 184
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.08.004

Chemical characterization of submicron aerosol particles collected over the Indian Ocean
journal, January 2002


Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Metrics
journal, December 2010


Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging: theoretical and experimental intercomparison
journal, January 2015


Parameterization of optical properties for hydrated internally mixed aerosol: PARAMETERIZATION OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES FOR HYDRATED AEROSOL
journal, May 2007

  • Ghan, Steven J.; Zaveri, Rahul A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 112, Issue D10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006JD007927

History of sulfate aerosol radiative forcings: HISTORY OF SULFATE AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCINGS
journal, May 2002


A parameterization of aerosol activation: 2. Multiple aerosol types
journal, March 2000

  • Abdul-Razzak, Hayder; Ghan, Steven J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 105, Issue D5
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999JD901161

Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis
journal, January 2006

  • Johnson, K. S.; de Foy, B.; Zuberi, B.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-6-4591-2006

Linking future aerosol radiative forcing to shifts in source activities: FUTURE AEROSOL SECTOR IMPACTS
journal, March 2007

  • Koch, Dorothy; Bond, Tami C.; Streets, David
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GL028360

Brown Clouds over South Asia: Biomass or Fossil Fuel Combustion?
journal, January 2009


Studies of the aerosol indirect effect from sulfate and black carbon aerosols
journal, January 2002

  • Kristjánsson, Jón Egill
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, Issue D15
  • DOI: 10.1029/2001JD000887

Technical Note: Estimating aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing
journal, January 2013


Climate response to externally mixed black carbon as a function of altitude: BC climate response vs altitude
journal, April 2015

  • Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 120, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JD022849

How much information is lost by using global-mean climate metrics? an example using the transport sector
journal, January 2012


Response of the climate system to aerosol direct and indirect forcing: Role of cloud feedbacks
journal, January 2005

  • Kristjánsson, J. E.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 110, Issue D24
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005JD006299

Constraining the influence of natural variability to improve estimates of global aerosol indirect effects in a nudged version of the Community Atmosphere Model 5: ESTIMATES OF AEROSOL INDIRECT EFFECTS
journal, December 2012

  • Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Pritchard, Michael S.; Ghan, Steven J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 117, Issue D23
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018588

Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming
journal, January 2002


A simple model of global aerosol indirect effects: GLOBAL AEROSOL INDIRECT EFFECTS
journal, June 2013

  • Ghan, Steven J.; Smith, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50567

Light absorption by organic carbon from wood combustion
journal, January 2010


Global cloud condensation nuclei influenced by carbonaceous combustion aerosol
journal, January 2011

  • Spracklen, D. V.; Carslaw, K. S.; Pöschl, U.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, Vol. 11, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.5194/acpd-11-6999-2011

Host model uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates: results from the AeroCom prescribed intercomparison study
journal, January 2012

  • Stier, P.; Schutgens, N. A. J.; Bian, H.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, Vol. 12, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.5194/acpd-12-25487-2012

Development of the adjoint of GEOS-Chem
journal, January 2006

  • Henze, D. K.; Seinfeld, J. H.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, Vol. 6, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.5194/acpd-6-10591-2006

Aerosol indirect effects – general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data
journal, January 2009

  • Quaas, J.; Ming, Y.; Menon, S.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, Vol. 9, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.5194/acpd-9-12731-2009

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment: BLACK CARBON IN THE CLIMATE SYSTEM
    journal, June 2013

    • Bond, T. C.; Doherty, S. J.; Fahey, D. W.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50171

    The role of circulation features on black carbon transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5): BC TRANSPORT IN OFF-LINE CAM5
    journal, May 2013

    • Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50411

    A simple model of global aerosol indirect effects: GLOBAL AEROSOL INDIRECT EFFECTS
    journal, June 2013

    • Ghan, Steven J.; Smith, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50567

    The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system
    journal, April 2011

    • Dee, D. P.; Uppala, S. M.; Simmons, A. J.
    • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 656
    • DOI: 10.1002/qj.828

    Climate forcing by carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols
    journal, October 1998


    Investigation on semi-direct and indirect climate effects of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol over China
    journal, March 2013

    • Zhuang, Bingliang; Liu, Qian; Wang, Tijian
    • Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 114, Issue 3-4
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00704-013-0862-8

    Alternatives to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases
    journal, February 2005


    How much information is lost by using global-mean climate metrics? an example using the transport sector
    journal, January 2012


    Carbon content of atmospheric aerosols in a residential area during the wood combustion season in Sweden
    journal, October 2007


    Characteristics and sources of PM2.5 and carbonaceous species during winter in Taiyuan, China
    journal, October 2007


    Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Metrics
    journal, December 2010


    Intercomparison of the GOS approach, superposition T-matrix method, and laboratory measurements for black carbon optical properties during aging
    journal, November 2016

    • He, Cenlin; Takano, Yoshi; Liou, Kuo-Nan
    • Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, Vol. 184
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.08.004

    Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon
    journal, February 2015

    • Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.
    • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 115, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1021/cr5006167

    Can Reducing Black Carbon Emissions Counteract Global Warming?
    journal, August 2005

    • Bond, Tami C.; Sun, Haolin
    • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39, Issue 16
    • DOI: 10.1021/es0480421

    Spatially Refined Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing Efficiencies
    journal, August 2012

    • Henze, Daven K.; Shindell, Drew T.; Akhtar, Farhan
    • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 46, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1021/es301993s

    Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon
    journal, March 2008

    • Ramanathan, V.; Carmichael, G.
    • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 1, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo156

    Climate response to regional radiative forcing during the twentieth century
    journal, March 2009

    • Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg
    • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 2, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo473

    Attribution of climate forcing to economic sectors
    journal, February 2010

    • Unger, Nadine; Bond, Tami C.; Wang, James S.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 107, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0906548107

    Assessing the climatic benefits of black carbon mitigation
    journal, June 2010

    • Kopp, R. E.; Mauzerall, D. L.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 107, Issue 26
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0909605107

    Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability
    journal, February 2016

    • Ghan, Steven; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Shipeng
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 21
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1514036113

    Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario
    journal, August 2000

    • Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 97, Issue 18
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.170278997

    Aerosol-cloud-climate interactions in the climate model CAM-Oslo
    journal, May 2008


    Residential Biofuels in South Asia: Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions and Climate Impacts
    journal, March 2005


    Brown Clouds over South Asia: Biomass or Fossil Fuel Combustion?
    journal, January 2009


    Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and Improving Human Health and Food Security
    journal, January 2012


    Aerosols, Cloud Microphysics, and Fractional Cloudiness
    journal, September 1989


    Light absorption by organic carbon from wood combustion
    journal, January 2010


    Historical (1850–2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols: methodology and application
    journal, January 2010

    • Lamarque, J. -F.; Bond, T. C.; Eyring, V.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-7017-2010

    A global modeling study on carbonaceous aerosol microphysical characteristics and radiative effects
    journal, January 2010


    Black carbon semi-direct effects on cloud cover: review and synthesis
    journal, January 2010


    Soot microphysical effects on liquid clouds, a multi-model investigation
    journal, January 2011

    • Koch, D.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-1051-2011

    Quantifying immediate radiative forcing by black carbon and organic matter with the Specific Forcing Pulse
    journal, January 2011

    • Bond, T. C.; Zarzycki, C.; Flanner, M. G.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-1505-2011

    Global cloud condensation nuclei influenced by carbonaceous combustion aerosol
    journal, January 2011

    • Spracklen, D. V.; Carslaw, K. S.; Pöschl, U.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-9067-2011

    Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations
    journal, January 2013

    • Shindell, D. T.; Lamarque, J. -F.; Schulz, M.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-2939-2013

    Host model uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates: results from the AeroCom Prescribed intercomparison study
    journal, January 2013

    • Stier, P.; Schutgens, N. A. J.; Bellouin, N.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-3245-2013

    Technical Note: Estimating aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing
    journal, January 2013


    Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging: theoretical and experimental intercomparison
    journal, January 2015


    On the characteristics of aerosol indirect effect based on dynamic regimes in global climate models
    journal, January 2016

    • Zhang, Shipeng; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 16, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-16-2765-2016

    Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within AeroCom
    journal, January 2006

    • Textor, C.; Schulz, M.; Guibert, S.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-6-1777-2006

    Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols
    journal, January 2006


    Emissions of primary aerosol and precursor gases in the years 2000 and 1750 prescribed data-sets for AeroCom
    journal, January 2006

    • Dentener, F.; Kinne, S.; Bond, T.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-6-4321-2006

    Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis
    journal, January 2006

    • Johnson, K. S.; de Foy, B.; Zuberi, B.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-6-4591-2006

    Development of the adjoint of GEOS-Chem
    journal, January 2007

    • Henze, D. K.; Hakami, A.; Seinfeld, J. H.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-7-2413-2007

    Insights into the role of soot aerosols in cirrus cloud formation
    journal, January 2007

    • Kärcher, B.; Möhler, O.; DeMott, P. J.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 16
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-7-4203-2007

    Aerosol indirect effects – general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data
    journal, January 2009


    Sensitivity studies of different aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase clouds
    journal, January 2009


    Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: description and evaluation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5
    journal, January 2012

    • Liu, X.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 5, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-5-709-2012

    Sensitivity of remote aerosol distributions to representation of cloud–aerosol interactions in a global climate model
    journal, January 2013

    • Wang, H.; Easter, R. C.; Rasch, P. J.
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 6, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-6-765-2013