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Title: Substitutional Growth of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites in Alcohols

Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3) perovskites are organic–inorganic semiconductors with long carrier diffusion lengths serving as the light-harvesting component in optoelectronics. Through a substitutional growth of MAPbI 3 catalyzed by polar protic alcohols, evidence is shown in this paper for their substrate- and annealing-free production and use of toxic solvents and high temperature is prevented. The resulting variable-sized crystals (≈100 nm–10 µm) are found to be tetragonally single-phased in alcohols and precipitated as powders that are metallic-lead-free. A comparatively low MAPbI 3 yield in toluene supports the role of alcohol polarity and the type of solvent (protic vs aprotic). The theoretical calculations suggest that overall Gibbs free energy in alcohols is lowered due to their catalytic impact. Based on this alcohol-catalyzed approach, MAPbI 3 is obtained, which is chemically stable in air up to ≈1.5 months and thermally stable (≤300 °C). Finally, this method is amendable to large-scale manufacturing and ultimately can lead to energy-efficient, low-cost, and stable devices.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;  [1] ;  [6]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials. Nanoscience and Technology Division
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Organic Materials Science
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source. X-Ray Science Division
  4. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Materials Science Division
  5. Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry
  6. (United States). Inst. for Molecular Engineering
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357; NA0003525
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Energy Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1614-6832
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Alcohols; Crystal Growth; Perovskites; Solar Cells; Stability
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1395602