skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Characterization of an active metasurface using terahertz ellipsometry

Abstract

Switchable metasurfaces fabricated on a doped epi-layer have become an important platform for developing techniques to control terahertz (THz) radiation, as a DC bias can modulate the transmission characteristics of the metasurface. To model and understand this performance in new device configurations accurately, a quantitative understanding of the bias-dependent surface characteristics is required. In this work, we perform THz variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry on a switchable metasurface as a function of DC bias. By comparing these data with numerical simulations, we extract a model for the response of the metasurface at any bias value. Using this model, we predict a giant bias-induced phase modulation in a guided wave configuration. Lastly, these predictions are in qualitative agreement with our measurements, offering a route to efficient modulation of THz signals.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). School of Engineering
  2. U.S. Army AMRDEC, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, AL (United States)
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT)
  4. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1426809
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1407432
Report Number(s):
SAND-2018-2215J
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951; 661067; TRN: US1802712
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000; NA0003525; AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 111; Journal Issue: 19; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Karl, Nicholas, Heimbeck, Martin S., Everitt, Henry O., Chen, Hou-Tong, Taylor, Antoinette J., Brener, Igal, Benz, Alexander, Reno, John L., Mendis, Rajind, and Mittleman, Daniel M. Characterization of an active metasurface using terahertz ellipsometry. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5004194.
Karl, Nicholas, Heimbeck, Martin S., Everitt, Henry O., Chen, Hou-Tong, Taylor, Antoinette J., Brener, Igal, Benz, Alexander, Reno, John L., Mendis, Rajind, & Mittleman, Daniel M. Characterization of an active metasurface using terahertz ellipsometry. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5004194.
Karl, Nicholas, Heimbeck, Martin S., Everitt, Henry O., Chen, Hou-Tong, Taylor, Antoinette J., Brener, Igal, Benz, Alexander, Reno, John L., Mendis, Rajind, and Mittleman, Daniel M. Mon . "Characterization of an active metasurface using terahertz ellipsometry". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5004194. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1426809.
@article{osti_1426809,
title = {Characterization of an active metasurface using terahertz ellipsometry},
author = {Karl, Nicholas and Heimbeck, Martin S. and Everitt, Henry O. and Chen, Hou-Tong and Taylor, Antoinette J. and Brener, Igal and Benz, Alexander and Reno, John L. and Mendis, Rajind and Mittleman, Daniel M.},
abstractNote = {Switchable metasurfaces fabricated on a doped epi-layer have become an important platform for developing techniques to control terahertz (THz) radiation, as a DC bias can modulate the transmission characteristics of the metasurface. To model and understand this performance in new device configurations accurately, a quantitative understanding of the bias-dependent surface characteristics is required. In this work, we perform THz variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry on a switchable metasurface as a function of DC bias. By comparing these data with numerical simulations, we extract a model for the response of the metasurface at any bias value. Using this model, we predict a giant bias-induced phase modulation in a guided wave configuration. Lastly, these predictions are in qualitative agreement with our measurements, offering a route to efficient modulation of THz signals.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5004194},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 19,
volume = 111,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Nonlinear Terahertz Metamaterials via Field-Enhanced Carrier Dynamics in GaAs
journal, May 2013


A low-voltage high-speed terahertz spatial light modulator using active metamaterial
journal, November 2016

  • Rout, Saroj; Sonkusale, Sameer R.
  • APL Photonics, Vol. 1, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4958739

Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators
journal, June 2014


In-plane focusing of terahertz surface waves on a gradient index metamaterial film
journal, January 2013

  • Volk, Martin F.; Reinhard, Benjamin; Neu, Jens
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.38.002156

Experimental and numerical studies of terahertz surface waves on a thin metamaterial film
journal, January 2010

  • Reinhard, Benjamin; Paul, Oliver; Beigang, René
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.35.001320

An investigation of the lowest-order transverse-electric (TE_1) mode of the parallel-plate waveguide for THz pulse propagation
journal, January 2009

  • Mendis, Rajind; Mittleman, Daniel M.
  • Journal of the Optical Society of America B, Vol. 26, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1364/JOSAB.26.0000A6

An electrically driven terahertz metamaterial diffractive modulator with more than 20 dB of dynamic range
journal, March 2014

  • Karl, N.; Reichel, K.; Chen, H. -T.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 104, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4867276

Inhibiting the TE_1-mode diffraction losses in terahertz parallel-plate waveguides using concave plates
journal, January 2012

  • Mbonye, Marx; Mendis, Rajind; Mittleman, Daniel M.
  • Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.20.027800

Gbps Terahertz External Modulator Based on a Composite Metamaterial with a Double-Channel Heterostructure
journal, April 2015


Metasurfing: Addressing Waves on Impenetrable Metasurfaces
journal, January 2011

  • Maci, S.; Minatti, G.; Casaletti, M.
  • IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 10
  • DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2012.2183631

Variable-wavelength frequency-domain terahertz ellipsometry
journal, February 2010

  • Hofmann, T.; Herzinger, C. M.; Boosalis, A.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 81, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3297902

Towards THz Communications - Status in Research, Standardization and Regulation
journal, August 2013

  • Kürner, Thomas; Priebe, Sebastian
  • Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Vol. 35, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10762-013-0014-3

A 0.28 THz Power-Generation and Beam-Steering Array in CMOS Based on Distributed Active Radiators
journal, December 2012


Magnetically tunable room-temperature 2 pi liquid crystal terahertz phase shifter
journal, January 2004

  • Chen, Chao-Yuan; Hsieh, Cho-Fan; Lin, Yea-Feng
  • Optics Express, Vol. 12, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1364/OPEX.12.002625

Plastic ribbon THz waveguides
journal, January 2000

  • Mendis, R.; Grischkowsky, D.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 88, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1310179

A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams
journal, May 2009

  • Chan, Wai Lam; Chen, Hou-Tong; Taylor, Antoinette J.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3147221

A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator
journal, February 2009

  • Chen, Hou-Tong; Padilla, Willie J.; Cich, Michael J.
  • Nature Photonics, Vol. 3, Issue 3, p. 148-151
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2009.3

Reconfigurable and Tunable Metamaterials: A Review of the Theory and Applications
journal, January 2014

  • Turpin, Jeremiah P.; Bossard, Jeremy A.; Morgan, Kenneth L.
  • International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2014, Article No. 429837
  • DOI: 10.1155/2014/429837

Widely Tunable Terahertz Phase Modulation with Gate-Controlled Graphene Metasurfaces
journal, November 2015


Terahertz phase modulator
journal, January 2000

  • Kersting, R.; Strasser, G.; Unterrainer, K.
  • Electronics Letters, Vol. 36, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1049/el:20000837

Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics
journal, May 2016

  • Nagatsuma, Tadao; Ducournau, Guillaume; Renaud, Cyril C.
  • Nature Photonics, Vol. 10, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2016.65

Developments in THz Range Ellipsometry
journal, June 2013

  • Neshat, M.; Armitage, N. P.
  • Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Vol. 34, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10762-013-9984-4

THz photonic wireless links with 16-QAM modulation in the 375-450 GHz band
journal, January 2016


A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications
journal, June 2016


Active terahertz metamaterial devices
journal, November 2006

  • Chen, Hou-Tong; Padilla, Willie J.; Zide, Joshua M. O.
  • Nature, Vol. 444, Issue 7119, p. 597-600
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature05343