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Title: Synchrotron X-Ray Topography for Encapsulation Stress/Strain and Crack Detection in Crystalline Silicon Modules

Here in this article, we present the first experiment to prove the capabilities of X-ray topography for the direct imaging and analysis of defects, stress, and strain affecting the cell within the laminated photovoltaic (PV) module. Cracks originating from grain boundaries structures have been detected, developing along the cleavage planes of the crystal. The strain affecting the cell is clearly visualized through the bending of the metallization line images and can be easily mapped. While the recording conditions need to be optimized to maximize image contrast, this experiment demonstrates how synchrotron facilities can enable PV industry and research to characterize full PV modules. Appropriate development of the technique could also lead to future use of laboratory-level X-ray sources.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
BNL-113223-2016-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 2156-3381
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2156-3381
Publisher:
IEEE
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S); BNL Program Development
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY
OSTI Identifier:
1426792