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Title: CAUSES: On the Role of Surface Energy Budget Errors to the Warm Surface Air Temperature Error Over the Central United States

Abstract

Many weather forecast and climate models simulate warm surface air temperature (T 2m) biases over midlatitude continents during the summertime, especially over the Great Plains. We present here one of a series of papers from a multimodel intercomparison project (CAUSES: Cloud Above the United States and Errors at the Surface), which aims to evaluate the role of cloud, radiation, and precipitation biases in contributing to the T 2m bias using a short-term hindcast approach during the spring and summer of 2011. Observations are mainly from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains sites. The present study examines the contributions of surface energy budget errors. All participating models simulate too much net shortwave and longwave fluxes at the surface but with no consistent mean bias sign in turbulent fluxes over the Central United States and Southern Great Plains. Nevertheless, biases in the net shortwave and downward longwave fluxes as well as surface evaporative fraction (EF) are contributors to T 2m bias. Radiation biases are largely affected by cloud simulations, while EF bias is largely affected by soil moisture modulated by seasonal accumulated precipitation and evaporation. An approximate equation based upon the surface energy budget is derived to further quantify the magnitudesmore » of radiation and EF contributions to T 2m bias. Our analysis ascribes that a large EF underestimate is the dominant source of error in all models with a large positive temperature bias, whereas an EF overestimate compensates for an excess of absorbed shortwave radiation in nearly all the models with the smallest temperature bias.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [7] more »; ORCiD logo [8] « less
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore CA USA
  2. Met Office Exeter UK
  3. European Centre for Medium‐Range Weather Forecasts Reading UK
  4. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland WA USA
  5. Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Paris France
  6. Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and AnalysisEnvironment Canada Victoria British Columbia Canada
  7. CNRM, Meteo‐France/CNRS Toulouse France
  8. Research Center for Environmental ChangeAcademia Sinica Taipei Taiwan
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1426344
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1426348; OSTI ID: 1430530
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-126060
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Grant/Contract Number:  
DE‐AC05‐76RL01830; DE‐SC0005259; DE‐SC0014122; DE‐AC52‐07NA27344; AC02-05CH11231; AC05-76RL01830; SC0005259; SC0014122; AC52-07NA27344; DARI-0292; NSC100-2119-M-001-029-MY5; MOST105-2119-M-001-018
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres Journal Volume: 123 Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Ma, H. ‐Y., Klein, S. A., Xie, S., Zhang, C., Tang, S., Tang, Q., Morcrette, C. J., Van Weverberg, K., Petch, J., Ahlgrimm, M., Berg, L. K., Cheruy, F., Cole, J., Forbes, R., Gustafson, Jr, W. I., Huang, M., Liu, Y., Merryfield, W., Qian, Y., Roehrig, R., and Wang, Y. ‐C. CAUSES: On the Role of Surface Energy Budget Errors to the Warm Surface Air Temperature Error Over the Central United States. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JD027194.
Ma, H. ‐Y., Klein, S. A., Xie, S., Zhang, C., Tang, S., Tang, Q., Morcrette, C. J., Van Weverberg, K., Petch, J., Ahlgrimm, M., Berg, L. K., Cheruy, F., Cole, J., Forbes, R., Gustafson, Jr, W. I., Huang, M., Liu, Y., Merryfield, W., Qian, Y., Roehrig, R., & Wang, Y. ‐C. CAUSES: On the Role of Surface Energy Budget Errors to the Warm Surface Air Temperature Error Over the Central United States. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027194.
Ma, H. ‐Y., Klein, S. A., Xie, S., Zhang, C., Tang, S., Tang, Q., Morcrette, C. J., Van Weverberg, K., Petch, J., Ahlgrimm, M., Berg, L. K., Cheruy, F., Cole, J., Forbes, R., Gustafson, Jr, W. I., Huang, M., Liu, Y., Merryfield, W., Qian, Y., Roehrig, R., and Wang, Y. ‐C. Fri . "CAUSES: On the Role of Surface Energy Budget Errors to the Warm Surface Air Temperature Error Over the Central United States". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027194.
@article{osti_1426344,
title = {CAUSES: On the Role of Surface Energy Budget Errors to the Warm Surface Air Temperature Error Over the Central United States},
author = {Ma, H. ‐Y. and Klein, S. A. and Xie, S. and Zhang, C. and Tang, S. and Tang, Q. and Morcrette, C. J. and Van Weverberg, K. and Petch, J. and Ahlgrimm, M. and Berg, L. K. and Cheruy, F. and Cole, J. and Forbes, R. and Gustafson, Jr, W. I. and Huang, M. and Liu, Y. and Merryfield, W. and Qian, Y. and Roehrig, R. and Wang, Y. ‐C.},
abstractNote = {Many weather forecast and climate models simulate warm surface air temperature (T2m) biases over midlatitude continents during the summertime, especially over the Great Plains. We present here one of a series of papers from a multimodel intercomparison project (CAUSES: Cloud Above the United States and Errors at the Surface), which aims to evaluate the role of cloud, radiation, and precipitation biases in contributing to the T2m bias using a short-term hindcast approach during the spring and summer of 2011. Observations are mainly from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains sites. The present study examines the contributions of surface energy budget errors. All participating models simulate too much net shortwave and longwave fluxes at the surface but with no consistent mean bias sign in turbulent fluxes over the Central United States and Southern Great Plains. Nevertheless, biases in the net shortwave and downward longwave fluxes as well as surface evaporative fraction (EF) are contributors to T2m bias. Radiation biases are largely affected by cloud simulations, while EF bias is largely affected by soil moisture modulated by seasonal accumulated precipitation and evaporation. An approximate equation based upon the surface energy budget is derived to further quantify the magnitudes of radiation and EF contributions to T2m bias. Our analysis ascribes that a large EF underestimate is the dominant source of error in all models with a large positive temperature bias, whereas an EF overestimate compensates for an excess of absorbed shortwave radiation in nearly all the models with the smallest temperature bias.},
doi = {10.1002/2017JD027194},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = 5,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}

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Free Publicly Available Full Text
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DOI: 10.1002/2017JD027194

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