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Title: Introduction to CAUSES: Description of Weather and Climate Models and Their Near-Surface Temperature Errors in 5 day Hindcasts Near the Southern Great Plains

We introduce the Clouds Above the United States and Errors at the Surface (CAUSES) project with its aim of better understanding the physical processes leading to warm screen temperature biases over the American Midwest in many numerical models. In this first of four companion papers, 11 different models, from nine institutes, perform a series of 5 day hindcasts, each initialized from reanalyses. After describing the common experimental protocol and detailing each model configuration, a gridded temperature data set is derived from observations and used to show that all the models have a warm bias over parts of the Midwest. Additionally, a strong diurnal cycle in the screen temperature bias is found in most models. In some models the bias is largest around midday, while in others it is largest during the night. At the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, the model biases are shown to extend several kilometers into the atmosphere. Finally, to provide context for the companion papers, in which observations from the SGP site are used to evaluate the different processes contributing to errors there, it is shown that there are numerous locations across the Midwest where the diurnal cycle of themore » error is highly correlated with the diurnal cycle of the error at SGP. This suggests that conclusions drawn from detailed evaluation of models using instruments located at SGP will be representative of errors that are prevalent over a larger spatial scale.« less
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  1. Met Office, Exeter (United Kingdom)
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  3. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading (United Kingdom)
  4. Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques (CNRM), Toulouse (France). Meteo-France/CNRS
  5. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  6. NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)
  7. Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France)
  8. Environment and Climate Change Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada)
  9. Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-126058; LLNL-JRNL-732218
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0014122; SC0005259; AC52-07NA27344; AC05-76RL01830; AC02-05CH11231; DARI-0292
Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
American Geophysical Union
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Country of Publication:
United States
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; systematic errors; surface temperature bias; ARM; SGP; 58 GEOSCIENCES
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1426307; OSTI ID: 1429920; OSTI ID: 1438772