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Title: Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Nitrogen Species in Aged Wildfire Plumes Observed at the Mount Bachelor Observatory

During the summer of 2012 and 2013, we measured carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), ozone (O 3), nitrogen oxides (NO x), reactive nitrogen (NO y), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), aerosol scattering (σ sp) and absorption, elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC), and aerosol chemistry at the Mount Bachelor Observatory (2.8 km above sea level, Oregon, US). Here we analyze 23 of the individual plumes from regional wildfires to better understand production and loss of aerosols and gaseous species. We also developed a new method to calculate enhancement ratios and Modified Combustion Efficiency (MCE), which takes into account possible changes in background concentrations during transport. We compared this new method to existing methods for calculating enhancement ratios. The MCE values ranged from 0.79– 0.98, ΔO 3/ΔCO ranged from 0.01–0.07 ppbv ppbv –1, Δσ sp/ΔCO ranged from 0.23–1.32 Mm –1 (at STP) ppbv –1, ΔNO y/ΔCO ranged from 2.89–12.82 pptv ppbv –1, and ΔPAN/ΔCO ranged from 1.46–6.25 pptv ppbv–1. A comparison of three different methods to calculate enhancement ratios (ER) showed that the methods generally resulted in similar Δσ sp/ΔCO, ΔNO y/ΔCO, and ΔPAN/ΔCO; however, there was a significant bias between the methods when calculating ΔO 3/ΔCO due to themore » small absolute enhancement of O 3 in the plumes. The ΔO 3/ΔCO ERs calculated using two common methods were biased low (~20–30%) when compared to the new proposed method. Two pieces of evidence suggest moderate secondary particulate formation in many of the plumes studied: 1) mean observed ΔOC/ΔCO 2 was 0.028 g particulate-C gC –1 (as CO 2)—27% higher than the midpoint of the biomass burning emission ratio range reported by a recent review—and 2) single scattering albedo (ω) was relatively constant at all MCE values, in contrast with results for fresh plumes. Lastly, the observed NO x, PAN, and aerosol nitrate represented 6–48%, 25–57%, and 20–69% of the observed NOy in the aged plumes, respectively, and other species represented on average 11% of the observed NO y.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6]
  1. Gradient, Seattle, WA (United States); Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences
  2. Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States). School of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics; Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences
  3. Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States). School of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  4. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology
  5. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Statistics
  6. Sunset Lab., Inc., Tigard, OR (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0014620
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Aerosol and Air Quality Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1680-8584
Publisher:
Chinese Association for Aerosol Research in Taiwan
Research Org:
Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Particulate matter; Ozone; NOy; Enhancement ratio; Modified Combustion Efficiency
OSTI Identifier:
1425944

Briggs, Nicole L., Jaffe, Daniel A., Gao, Honglian, Hee, Jonathan R., Baylon, Pao M., Zhang, Qi, Zhou, Shan, Collier, Sonya C., Sampson, Paul D., and Cary, Robert A.. Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Nitrogen Species in Aged Wildfire Plumes Observed at the Mount Bachelor Observatory. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.4209/aaqr.2016.03.0120.
Briggs, Nicole L., Jaffe, Daniel A., Gao, Honglian, Hee, Jonathan R., Baylon, Pao M., Zhang, Qi, Zhou, Shan, Collier, Sonya C., Sampson, Paul D., & Cary, Robert A.. Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Nitrogen Species in Aged Wildfire Plumes Observed at the Mount Bachelor Observatory. United States. doi:10.4209/aaqr.2016.03.0120.
Briggs, Nicole L., Jaffe, Daniel A., Gao, Honglian, Hee, Jonathan R., Baylon, Pao M., Zhang, Qi, Zhou, Shan, Collier, Sonya C., Sampson, Paul D., and Cary, Robert A.. 2016. "Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Nitrogen Species in Aged Wildfire Plumes Observed at the Mount Bachelor Observatory". United States. doi:10.4209/aaqr.2016.03.0120. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1425944.
@article{osti_1425944,
title = {Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Nitrogen Species in Aged Wildfire Plumes Observed at the Mount Bachelor Observatory},
author = {Briggs, Nicole L. and Jaffe, Daniel A. and Gao, Honglian and Hee, Jonathan R. and Baylon, Pao M. and Zhang, Qi and Zhou, Shan and Collier, Sonya C. and Sampson, Paul D. and Cary, Robert A.},
abstractNote = {During the summer of 2012 and 2013, we measured carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), reactive nitrogen (NOy), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), aerosol scattering (σsp) and absorption, elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC), and aerosol chemistry at the Mount Bachelor Observatory (2.8 km above sea level, Oregon, US). Here we analyze 23 of the individual plumes from regional wildfires to better understand production and loss of aerosols and gaseous species. We also developed a new method to calculate enhancement ratios and Modified Combustion Efficiency (MCE), which takes into account possible changes in background concentrations during transport. We compared this new method to existing methods for calculating enhancement ratios. The MCE values ranged from 0.79– 0.98, ΔO3/ΔCO ranged from 0.01–0.07 ppbv ppbv–1, Δσsp/ΔCO ranged from 0.23–1.32 Mm–1 (at STP) ppbv–1, ΔNOy/ΔCO ranged from 2.89–12.82 pptv ppbv–1, and ΔPAN/ΔCO ranged from 1.46–6.25 pptv ppbv–1. A comparison of three different methods to calculate enhancement ratios (ER) showed that the methods generally resulted in similar Δσsp/ΔCO, ΔNOy/ΔCO, and ΔPAN/ΔCO; however, there was a significant bias between the methods when calculating ΔO3/ΔCO due to the small absolute enhancement of O3 in the plumes. The ΔO3/ΔCO ERs calculated using two common methods were biased low (~20–30%) when compared to the new proposed method. Two pieces of evidence suggest moderate secondary particulate formation in many of the plumes studied: 1) mean observed ΔOC/ΔCO2 was 0.028 g particulate-C gC–1 (as CO2)—27% higher than the midpoint of the biomass burning emission ratio range reported by a recent review—and 2) single scattering albedo (ω) was relatively constant at all MCE values, in contrast with results for fresh plumes. Lastly, the observed NOx, PAN, and aerosol nitrate represented 6–48%, 25–57%, and 20–69% of the observed NOy in the aged plumes, respectively, and other species represented on average 11% of the observed NOy.},
doi = {10.4209/aaqr.2016.03.0120},
journal = {Aerosol and Air Quality Research},
number = 12,
volume = 16,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {1}
}