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Title: Imaging and tuning polarity at SrTiO 3 domain walls

Electrostatic fields tune the ground state of interfaces between complex oxide materials. Electronic properties, such as conductivity and superconductivity, can be tuned and then used to create and control circuit elements and gate-defined devices. Here in this paper, we show that naturally occurring twin boundaries, with properties that are different from their surrounding bulk, can tune the LaAlO 3/SrTiO 3 interface 2DEG at the nanoscale. In particular, SrTiO 3 domain boundaries have the unusual distinction of remaining highly mobile down to low temperatures, and were recently suggested to be polar. Here we apply localized pressure to an individual SrTiO 3 twin boundary and detect a change in LaAlO 3/SrTiO 3 interface current distribution. Our data directly confirm the existence of polarity at the twin boundaries, and demonstrate that they can serve as effective tunable gates. As the location of SrTiO 3 domain walls can be controlled using external field stimuli, our findings suggest a novel approach to manipulate SrTiO 3-based devices on the nanoscale.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ; ORCiD logo [7] ;  [1]
  1. Bar-Ilan Univ., Ramat Gan (Israel). Dept. of Physics and Inst. of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials
  2. Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom). H. H.Wills Physics Lab.
  3. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science (SIMES); Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Physics; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Geballe Lab. for Advanced Materials, and Dept. of Applied Physics
  4. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Geballe Lab. for Advanced Materials, and Dept. of Applied Physics
  5. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science (SIMES)
  6. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science (SIMES); Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Geballe Lab. for Advanced Materials, and Dept. of Applied Physics
  7. Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Xi’an Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China). State Key Lab. for Mechanical Behavior of Materials
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; ERC-2014-STG-639792; ISF-1102/13; ISF-1281/17; GBMF4415; EP/P024904/1
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1476-1122
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); European Research Council (ERC); Israel Science Foundation (ISF); Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; Surfaces; interfaces and thin films
OSTI Identifier:
1425924

Frenkel, Yiftach, Haham, Noam, Shperber, Yishai, Bell, Christopher, Xie, Yanwu, Chen, Zhuoyu, Hikita, Yasuyuki, Hwang, Harold Y., Salje, Ekhard K. H., and Kalisky, Beena. Imaging and tuning polarity at SrTiO3 domain walls. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1038/nmat4966.
Frenkel, Yiftach, Haham, Noam, Shperber, Yishai, Bell, Christopher, Xie, Yanwu, Chen, Zhuoyu, Hikita, Yasuyuki, Hwang, Harold Y., Salje, Ekhard K. H., & Kalisky, Beena. Imaging and tuning polarity at SrTiO3 domain walls. United States. doi:10.1038/nmat4966.
Frenkel, Yiftach, Haham, Noam, Shperber, Yishai, Bell, Christopher, Xie, Yanwu, Chen, Zhuoyu, Hikita, Yasuyuki, Hwang, Harold Y., Salje, Ekhard K. H., and Kalisky, Beena. 2017. "Imaging and tuning polarity at SrTiO3 domain walls". United States. doi:10.1038/nmat4966. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1425924.
@article{osti_1425924,
title = {Imaging and tuning polarity at SrTiO3 domain walls},
author = {Frenkel, Yiftach and Haham, Noam and Shperber, Yishai and Bell, Christopher and Xie, Yanwu and Chen, Zhuoyu and Hikita, Yasuyuki and Hwang, Harold Y. and Salje, Ekhard K. H. and Kalisky, Beena},
abstractNote = {Electrostatic fields tune the ground state of interfaces between complex oxide materials. Electronic properties, such as conductivity and superconductivity, can be tuned and then used to create and control circuit elements and gate-defined devices. Here in this paper, we show that naturally occurring twin boundaries, with properties that are different from their surrounding bulk, can tune the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface 2DEG at the nanoscale. In particular, SrTiO3 domain boundaries have the unusual distinction of remaining highly mobile down to low temperatures, and were recently suggested to be polar. Here we apply localized pressure to an individual SrTiO3 twin boundary and detect a change in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface current distribution. Our data directly confirm the existence of polarity at the twin boundaries, and demonstrate that they can serve as effective tunable gates. As the location of SrTiO3 domain walls can be controlled using external field stimuli, our findings suggest a novel approach to manipulate SrTiO3-based devices on the nanoscale.},
doi = {10.1038/nmat4966},
journal = {Nature Materials},
number = 12,
volume = 16,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}