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Title: High-performance sodium–organic battery by realizing four-sodium storage in disodium rhodizonate

Abstract

Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for grid-scale applications need active materials that combine a high energy density with sustainability. Given the high theoretical specific capacity 501 mAh g -1, and Earth abundance of disodium rhodizonate (Na 2C 6O 6), it is one of the most promising cathodes for SIBs. However, substantially lower reversible capacities have been obtained compared with the theoretical value and the understanding of this discrepancy has been limited. In this paper, we reveal that irreversible phase transformation of Na 2C 6O 6 during cycling is the origin of the deteriorating redox activity of Na 2C 6O 6. The active-particle size and electrolyte conditions were identified as key factors to decrease the activation barrier of the phase transformation during desodiation. Finally, on the basis of this understanding, we achieved four-sodium storage in a Na 2C 6O 6 electrode with a reversible capacity of 484 mAh g -1, an energy density of 726 Wh kg -1 cathode, an energy efficiency above 87% and a good cycle retention.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3];  [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [3];  [1]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering
  2. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource
  3. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  4. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF); National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)
OSTI Identifier:
1425914
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; DGE-114747; NRF-2017R1A6A3A03007053
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2058-7546
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; batteries; electrochemistry; nanoparticles; organic molecules in materials science

Citation Formats

Lee, Minah, Hong, Jihyun, Lopez, Jeffrey, Sun, Yongming, Feng, Dawei, Lim, Kipil, Chueh, William C., Toney, Michael F., Cui, Yi, and Bao, Zhenan. High-performance sodium–organic battery by realizing four-sodium storage in disodium rhodizonate. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0014-y.
Lee, Minah, Hong, Jihyun, Lopez, Jeffrey, Sun, Yongming, Feng, Dawei, Lim, Kipil, Chueh, William C., Toney, Michael F., Cui, Yi, & Bao, Zhenan. High-performance sodium–organic battery by realizing four-sodium storage in disodium rhodizonate. United States. doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0014-y.
Lee, Minah, Hong, Jihyun, Lopez, Jeffrey, Sun, Yongming, Feng, Dawei, Lim, Kipil, Chueh, William C., Toney, Michael F., Cui, Yi, and Bao, Zhenan. Mon . "High-performance sodium–organic battery by realizing four-sodium storage in disodium rhodizonate". United States. doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0014-y. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1425914.
@article{osti_1425914,
title = {High-performance sodium–organic battery by realizing four-sodium storage in disodium rhodizonate},
author = {Lee, Minah and Hong, Jihyun and Lopez, Jeffrey and Sun, Yongming and Feng, Dawei and Lim, Kipil and Chueh, William C. and Toney, Michael F. and Cui, Yi and Bao, Zhenan},
abstractNote = {Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for grid-scale applications need active materials that combine a high energy density with sustainability. Given the high theoretical specific capacity 501 mAh g-1, and Earth abundance of disodium rhodizonate (Na2C6O6), it is one of the most promising cathodes for SIBs. However, substantially lower reversible capacities have been obtained compared with the theoretical value and the understanding of this discrepancy has been limited. In this paper, we reveal that irreversible phase transformation of Na2C6O6 during cycling is the origin of the deteriorating redox activity of Na2C6O6. The active-particle size and electrolyte conditions were identified as key factors to decrease the activation barrier of the phase transformation during desodiation. Finally, on the basis of this understanding, we achieved four-sodium storage in a Na2C6O6 electrode with a reversible capacity of 484 mAh g-1, an energy density of 726 Wh kg-1cathode, an energy efficiency above 87% and a good cycle retention.},
doi = {10.1038/s41560-017-0014-y},
journal = {Nature Energy},
number = 11,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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