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This content will become publicly available on October 9, 2018

Title: High-performance sodium–organic battery by realizing four-sodium storage in disodium rhodizonate

Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for grid-scale applications need active materials that combine a high energy density with sustainability. Given the high theoretical specific capacity 501 mAh g -1, and Earth abundance of disodium rhodizonate (Na 2C 6O 6), it is one of the most promising cathodes for SIBs. However, substantially lower reversible capacities have been obtained compared with the theoretical value and the understanding of this discrepancy has been limited. In this paper, we reveal that irreversible phase transformation of Na 2C 6O 6 during cycling is the origin of the deteriorating redox activity of Na 2C 6O 6. The active-particle size and electrolyte conditions were identified as key factors to decrease the activation barrier of the phase transformation during desodiation. Finally, on the basis of this understanding, we achieved four-sodium storage in a Na 2C 6O 6 electrode with a reversible capacity of 484 mAh g -1, an energy density of 726 Wh kg -1 cathode, an energy efficiency above 87% and a good cycle retention.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [4] ;  [3] ;  [1]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering
  2. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource
  3. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  4. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; DGE-114747; NRF-2017R1A6A3A03007053
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2058-7546
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF); National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; batteries; electrochemistry; nanoparticles; organic molecules in materials science
OSTI Identifier:
1425914