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Title: Interpretation of inverted photocurrent transients in organic lead halide perovskite solar cells: proof of the field screening by mobile ions and determination of the space charge layer widths

In Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide (MAPI) perovskite solar cells, screening of the built-in field by mobile ions has been proposed as part of the cause of the large hysteresis observed in the current/voltage scans in many cells. Here, we show that photocurrent transients measured immediately (e.g. 100 μs) after a voltage step can provide direct evidence that this field screening exists. Just after a step to forward bias, the photocurrent transients are reversed in sign (i.e. inverted), and the magnitude of the inverted transients can be used to find an upper bound on the width of the space charge layers adjacent to the electrodes. This in turn provides a lower bound on the mobile charge concentration, which we find to be ≳1 x 10 17 cm -3. Using a new photocurrent transient experiment, we show that the space charge layer thickness remains approximately constant as a function of bias, as expected for mobile ions in a solid electrolyte. We also discuss additional characteristics of the inverted photocurrent transients that imply either an unusually stable deep trapping, or a photo effect on the mobile ion conductivity.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics
  3. Swansea Univ., Swansea (United Kingdom). Centre for Solar Energy Research
  4. Sunlight Scientific, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
EE0006707; EP/J002305/1; EP/M023532/1; EP/I019278/1; EP/M025020/1; EP/G037515/1; EP/M014797/1).
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energy & Environmental Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1754-5692
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Research Org:
Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 14 SOLAR ENERGY
OSTI Identifier:
1425387

Belisle, Rebecca A., Nguyen, William H., Bowring, Andrea R., Calado, Philip, Li, Xiaoe, Irvine, Stuart J. C., McGehee, Michael D., Barnes, Piers R. F., and O'Regan, Brian C.. Interpretation of inverted photocurrent transients in organic lead halide perovskite solar cells: proof of the field screening by mobile ions and determination of the space charge layer widths. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1039/c6ee02914k.
Belisle, Rebecca A., Nguyen, William H., Bowring, Andrea R., Calado, Philip, Li, Xiaoe, Irvine, Stuart J. C., McGehee, Michael D., Barnes, Piers R. F., & O'Regan, Brian C.. Interpretation of inverted photocurrent transients in organic lead halide perovskite solar cells: proof of the field screening by mobile ions and determination of the space charge layer widths. United States. doi:10.1039/c6ee02914k.
Belisle, Rebecca A., Nguyen, William H., Bowring, Andrea R., Calado, Philip, Li, Xiaoe, Irvine, Stuart J. C., McGehee, Michael D., Barnes, Piers R. F., and O'Regan, Brian C.. 2017. "Interpretation of inverted photocurrent transients in organic lead halide perovskite solar cells: proof of the field screening by mobile ions and determination of the space charge layer widths". United States. doi:10.1039/c6ee02914k. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1425387.
@article{osti_1425387,
title = {Interpretation of inverted photocurrent transients in organic lead halide perovskite solar cells: proof of the field screening by mobile ions and determination of the space charge layer widths},
author = {Belisle, Rebecca A. and Nguyen, William H. and Bowring, Andrea R. and Calado, Philip and Li, Xiaoe and Irvine, Stuart J. C. and McGehee, Michael D. and Barnes, Piers R. F. and O'Regan, Brian C.},
abstractNote = {In Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide (MAPI) perovskite solar cells, screening of the built-in field by mobile ions has been proposed as part of the cause of the large hysteresis observed in the current/voltage scans in many cells. Here, we show that photocurrent transients measured immediately (e.g. 100 μs) after a voltage step can provide direct evidence that this field screening exists. Just after a step to forward bias, the photocurrent transients are reversed in sign (i.e. inverted), and the magnitude of the inverted transients can be used to find an upper bound on the width of the space charge layers adjacent to the electrodes. This in turn provides a lower bound on the mobile charge concentration, which we find to be ≳1 x 1017 cm-3. Using a new photocurrent transient experiment, we show that the space charge layer thickness remains approximately constant as a function of bias, as expected for mobile ions in a solid electrolyte. We also discuss additional characteristics of the inverted photocurrent transients that imply either an unusually stable deep trapping, or a photo effect on the mobile ion conductivity.},
doi = {10.1039/c6ee02914k},
journal = {Energy & Environmental Science},
number = 1,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {1}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells
journal, May 2009
  • Kojima, Akihiro; Teshima, Kenjiro; Shirai, Yasuo
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 131, Issue 17, p. 6050-6051
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja809598r