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Title: Frequency Response Assessment and Enhancement of the U.S. Power Grids towards Extra-High Photovoltaic Generation Penetrations – an Industry Perspective

Nonsynchronous generations such as photovoltaics (PVs) are expected to undermine bulk power systems (BPSs)' frequency response at high penetration levels. Though the underlying mechanism has been relatively well understood, the accurate assessment and effective enhancement of the U.S. interconnections, frequency response under extra-high PV penetration conditions remains an issue. In this paper, the industry-provided full-detail interconnection models were further validated by synchrophasor frequency measurements and realistically-projected PV geographic distribution information were used to develop extra-high PV penetration scenarios and dynamic models for the three main U.S. interconnections, including Eastern Interconnection (EI), Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), and Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). Up to 65% instantaneous PV and 15% wind penetration were simulated and the frequency response change trend of each U.S. interconnection due to the increasing PV penetration level were examined. Most importantly, the practical solutions to address the declining frequency response were discussed. This paper will provide valuable guidance for policy makers, utility operators and academic researchers not only in the U.S. but also other countries in the world.
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0885-8950
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 33; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0885-8950
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S), SunShot National Laboratory Multiyear Partnership (SuNLaMP)
Country of Publication:
United States
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; bulk power system; inertia; frequency response; frequency nadir; PV
OSTI Identifier: