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Title: Phase modulation due to crystal diffraction by ptychographic imaging

Solving the phase problem in x-ray crystallography has occupied a considerable scientific effort in the 20th century and led to great advances in structural science. Here we use x-ray ptychography to demonstrate an interference method which measures the phase of the beam transmitted through a crystal, relative to the incoming beam, when diffraction takes place. The observed phase change of the direct beam through a small gold crystal is found to agree with both a quasikinematical model and full dynamical theories of diffraction. Our discovery of a diffraction contrast mechanism will enhance the interpretation of data obtained from crystalline samples using the ptychography method, which provides some of the most accurate x-ray phase-contrast images.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7]
  1. Univ. College, London (United Kingdom). London Centre for Nanotechnology. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  2. Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
  3. Univ. College, London (United Kingdom). London Centre for Nanotechnology. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; European XFEL GmbH, Schenefeld (Germany)
  4. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
  5. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  6. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); National Research Nuclear Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)
  7. Univ. College, London (United Kingdom). London Centre for Nanotechnology. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Division
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
BNL-203280-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9950; TRN: US1802039
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704; EP/I022562/1
Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 97; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9950
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Univ. College, London (United Kingdom)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; crystal phenomena; crystal structure; nanocrystals; coherent x-ray scattering; crystallography; x-ray diffraction; x-ray imaging; x-ray standing waves
OSTI Identifier:
1423915
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1425087

Civita, M., Diaz, A., Bean, R. J., Shabalin, A. G., Gorobtsov, O. Yu., Vartanyants, I. A., and Robinson, I. K.. Phase modulation due to crystal diffraction by ptychographic imaging. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.97.104101.
Civita, M., Diaz, A., Bean, R. J., Shabalin, A. G., Gorobtsov, O. Yu., Vartanyants, I. A., & Robinson, I. K.. Phase modulation due to crystal diffraction by ptychographic imaging. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.97.104101.
Civita, M., Diaz, A., Bean, R. J., Shabalin, A. G., Gorobtsov, O. Yu., Vartanyants, I. A., and Robinson, I. K.. 2018. "Phase modulation due to crystal diffraction by ptychographic imaging". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.97.104101.
@article{osti_1423915,
title = {Phase modulation due to crystal diffraction by ptychographic imaging},
author = {Civita, M. and Diaz, A. and Bean, R. J. and Shabalin, A. G. and Gorobtsov, O. Yu. and Vartanyants, I. A. and Robinson, I. K.},
abstractNote = {Solving the phase problem in x-ray crystallography has occupied a considerable scientific effort in the 20th century and led to great advances in structural science. Here we use x-ray ptychography to demonstrate an interference method which measures the phase of the beam transmitted through a crystal, relative to the incoming beam, when diffraction takes place. The observed phase change of the direct beam through a small gold crystal is found to agree with both a quasikinematical model and full dynamical theories of diffraction. Our discovery of a diffraction contrast mechanism will enhance the interpretation of data obtained from crystalline samples using the ptychography method, which provides some of the most accurate x-ray phase-contrast images.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.97.104101},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = 10,
volume = 97,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}