skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on February 14, 2019

Title: Tracking the ultrafast XUV optical properties of x-ray free-electron-laser heated matter with high-order harmonics

We present measurements of photon absorption by free electrons as a solid is transformed to plasma. A femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser is used to heat a solid, which separates the electron and ion heating time scales. The changes in absorption are measured with an independent probe pulse created through high-order-harmonic generation. We find an increase in electron temperature to have a relatively small impact on absorption, contrary to several predictions, whereas ion heating increases absorption. Here, we compare the data to current theoretical and numerical approaches and find that a smoother electronic structure yields a better fit to the data, suggestive of a temperature-dependent electronic structure in warm dense matter.
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [10] ;  [10] more »;  [11] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [1] « less
  1. Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal). GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico
  2. Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee
  3. Univ. Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  4. Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Inst. of Optics and Quantum Electronics
  5. European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL), Hamburg (Germany)
  6. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  7. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  8. Imagine Optic, Orsay (France)
  9. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  10. Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Arpajon (France). CEA Direction des Applications Militaires (DAM-DIF)
  11. Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fusion Nuclear
  12. Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Lab. pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; SF00515; EXPL/FIS-OPT/0889/2012; PTDC/FIS/112392/2009; MP1203; EC-GA 654148; H2020-FETOPEN-2014-2015-RIA 665207
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review A
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 97; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9926
American Physical Society (APS)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24)
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier: