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Title: Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing

Abstract

Source attribution of Arctic sulfate and its radiative forcing due to aerosol-radiation interactions (RFari) for 2010–2014 are quantified in this study using the Community Earth System Model equipped with an explicit sulfur source-tagging technique. The model roughly reproduces the seasonal pattern of sulfate but has biases in simulating the magnitude of near-surface concentrations and vertical distribution. Regions that have high emissions and/or are near/within the Arctic present relatively large contributions to Arctic sulfate burden, with the largest contribution from sources in East Asia (27%). Seasonal variations of the contribution to Arctic sulfate burden from remote sources are strongly influenced by meteorology. The mean RFari of anthropogenic sulfate offsets one third of the positive top of the atmosphere (TOA) RFari from black carbon. A 20% global reduction in anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to a net Arctic TOA forcing increase of +0.019W m–2. These results indicate that a joint reduction in BC and SO2 emissions could prevent at least some of the Arctic warming from any future SO2 emission reductions. Furthermore, sulfate RFari efficiency calculations suggest that source regions with short transport pathways and meteorology favoring longer lifetimes are more efficient in influencing the Arctic sulfate RFari. Based on Arctic climate sensitivitymore » factors, about 0.19 K of the Arctic surface temperature cooling is attributed to anthropogenic sulfate, with –0.05 K of that from sources in East Asia, relative to preindustrial conditions.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Joint Global Change Research Inst.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA)
OSTI Identifier:
1423416
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1419909
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-126892
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X; 453040180; KP1703010
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830; NNH15AZ64I
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; meteorology; Arctic; sulfate; radiative; black carbon; sulfate aerosol; source attribution; radiative forcing; aerosol‐radiation interaction

Citation Formats

Yang, Yang, Wang, Hailong, Smith, Steven J., Easter, Richard C., and Rasch, Philip J. Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JD027298.
Yang, Yang, Wang, Hailong, Smith, Steven J., Easter, Richard C., & Rasch, Philip J. Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027298.
Yang, Yang, Wang, Hailong, Smith, Steven J., Easter, Richard C., and Rasch, Philip J. Thu . "Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027298. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1423416.
@article{osti_1423416,
title = {Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing},
author = {Yang, Yang and Wang, Hailong and Smith, Steven J. and Easter, Richard C. and Rasch, Philip J.},
abstractNote = {Source attribution of Arctic sulfate and its radiative forcing due to aerosol-radiation interactions (RFari) for 2010–2014 are quantified in this study using the Community Earth System Model equipped with an explicit sulfur source-tagging technique. The model roughly reproduces the seasonal pattern of sulfate but has biases in simulating the magnitude of near-surface concentrations and vertical distribution. Regions that have high emissions and/or are near/within the Arctic present relatively large contributions to Arctic sulfate burden, with the largest contribution from sources in East Asia (27%). Seasonal variations of the contribution to Arctic sulfate burden from remote sources are strongly influenced by meteorology. The mean RFari of anthropogenic sulfate offsets one third of the positive top of the atmosphere (TOA) RFari from black carbon. A 20% global reduction in anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to a net Arctic TOA forcing increase of +0.019W m–2. These results indicate that a joint reduction in BC and SO2 emissions could prevent at least some of the Arctic warming from any future SO2 emission reductions. Furthermore, sulfate RFari efficiency calculations suggest that source regions with short transport pathways and meteorology favoring longer lifetimes are more efficient in influencing the Arctic sulfate RFari. Based on Arctic climate sensitivity factors, about 0.19 K of the Arctic surface temperature cooling is attributed to anthropogenic sulfate, with –0.05 K of that from sources in East Asia, relative to preindustrial conditions.},
doi = {10.1002/2017JD027298},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = 3,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

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