skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Electro-Optic Frequency Beam Splitters and Tritters for High-Fidelity Photonic Quantum Information Processing

Abstract

In this paper, we report the experimental realization of high-fidelity photonic quantum gates for frequency-encoded qubits and qutrits based on electro-optic modulation and Fourier-transform pulse shaping. Our frequency version of the Hadamard gate offers near-unity fidelity (0.99998±0.00003), requires only a single microwave drive tone for near-ideal performance, functions across the entire C band (1530–1570 nm), and can operate concurrently on multiple qubits spaced as tightly as four frequency modes apart, with no observable degradation in the fidelity. For qutrits, we implement a 3×3 extension of the Hadamard gate: the balanced tritter. This tritter—the first ever demonstrated for frequency modes—attains fidelity 0.9989±0.0004. Finally, these gates represent important building blocks toward scalable, high-fidelity quantum information processing based on frequency encoding.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Purdue Quantum Center
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Quantum Information Science Group. Computational Sciences and Engineering Division
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Quantum Information Science Group. Computational Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; ORNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1423025
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1417418
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; ECCS-1407620
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 120; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; optoelectronics; photonics; quantum information processing; quantum state engineering

Citation Formats

Lu, Hsuan-Hao, Lukens, Joseph M., Peters, Nicholas A., Odele, Ogaga D., Leaird, Daniel E., Weiner, Andrew M., and Lougovski, Pavel. Electro-Optic Frequency Beam Splitters and Tritters for High-Fidelity Photonic Quantum Information Processing. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.030502.
Lu, Hsuan-Hao, Lukens, Joseph M., Peters, Nicholas A., Odele, Ogaga D., Leaird, Daniel E., Weiner, Andrew M., & Lougovski, Pavel. Electro-Optic Frequency Beam Splitters and Tritters for High-Fidelity Photonic Quantum Information Processing. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.030502.
Lu, Hsuan-Hao, Lukens, Joseph M., Peters, Nicholas A., Odele, Ogaga D., Leaird, Daniel E., Weiner, Andrew M., and Lougovski, Pavel. Thu . "Electro-Optic Frequency Beam Splitters and Tritters for High-Fidelity Photonic Quantum Information Processing". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.030502. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1423025.
@article{osti_1423025,
title = {Electro-Optic Frequency Beam Splitters and Tritters for High-Fidelity Photonic Quantum Information Processing},
author = {Lu, Hsuan-Hao and Lukens, Joseph M. and Peters, Nicholas A. and Odele, Ogaga D. and Leaird, Daniel E. and Weiner, Andrew M. and Lougovski, Pavel},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we report the experimental realization of high-fidelity photonic quantum gates for frequency-encoded qubits and qutrits based on electro-optic modulation and Fourier-transform pulse shaping. Our frequency version of the Hadamard gate offers near-unity fidelity (0.99998±0.00003), requires only a single microwave drive tone for near-ideal performance, functions across the entire C band (1530–1570 nm), and can operate concurrently on multiple qubits spaced as tightly as four frequency modes apart, with no observable degradation in the fidelity. For qutrits, we implement a 3×3 extension of the Hadamard gate: the balanced tritter. This tritter—the first ever demonstrated for frequency modes—attains fidelity 0.9989±0.0004. Finally, these gates represent important building blocks toward scalable, high-fidelity quantum information processing based on frequency encoding.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.030502},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 3,
volume = 120,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 16 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

FIG.  1 FIG. 1: Experimental setup. See text and Appendix C for details.

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Maximal success probabilities of linear-optical quantum gates
journal, April 2009


Ultrafast optical pulse shaping: A tutorial review
journal, July 2011


Quantum Frequency Translation of Single-Photon States in a Photonic Crystal Fiber
journal, August 2010


Nonlocal modulation of entangled photons
journal, August 2008


Modulation and measurement of time-energy entangled photons
journal, September 2009


Observation of quantum frequency conversion
journal, April 1992


Efficiently Loading a Single Photon into a Single-Sided Fabry-Perot Cavity
journal, September 2014


Amplitude and phase modulation of time-energy entangled two-photon states
journal, January 2008


Orthogonal Spectral Coding of Entangled Photons
journal, April 2014


Mach-Zehnder interferometer using frequency-domain beamsplitter
journal, January 2017

  • Kobayashi, Toshiki; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Matsuki, Kenichiro
  • Optics Express, Vol. 25, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.25.012052

Optical arbitrary waveform generation
journal, October 2010


Frequency-domain Hong–Ou–Mandel interference
journal, April 2016


Spectral Shearing of Quantum Light Pulses by Electro-Optic Phase Modulation
journal, January 2017


Micrometer-scale integrated silicon source of time-energy entangled photons
journal, January 2015


A quantum pulse gate based on spectrally engineered sum frequency generation
journal, January 2011

  • Eckstein, Andreas; Brecht, Benjamin; Silberhorn, Christine
  • Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.19.013770

Frequency-encoded photonic qubits for scalable quantum information processing
journal, December 2016


Entangled-Pair Transmission Improvement Using Distributed Phase-Sensitive Amplification
journal, December 2014


Observation of Nonlocal Modulation with Entangled Photons
journal, October 2009


Quantum walks based on an interferometric analogy
journal, September 2003


Low-noise chip-based frequency conversion by four-wave-mixing Bragg scattering in SiN_x waveguides
journal, January 2012

  • Agha, Imad; Davanço, Marcelo; Thurston, Bryce
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.37.002997

Quantum simulation of discrete-time Hamiltonians using directionally unbiased linear optical multiports
journal, April 2017


Temporal Shaping of Entangled Photons
journal, February 2005


Demonstration of coherent time-frequency Schmidt mode selection using dispersion-engineered frequency conversion
journal, September 2014


Ramsey Interference with Single Photons
journal, November 2016


Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs
journal, March 2016


Frequency-bin entangled photons
journal, July 2010


Distinguishability and Many-Particle Interference
journal, April 2017


From quantum pulse gate to quantum pulse shaper—engineered frequency conversion in nonlinear optical waveguides
journal, June 2011


Direct characterization of linear-optical networks
journal, January 2013

  • Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh; Broome, Matthew A.; Fickler, Robert
  • Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.21.013450

Demonstration of High-Order Dispersion Cancellation with an Ultrahigh-Efficiency Sum-Frequency Correlator
journal, November 2013


Multidimensional mode-separable frequency conversion for high-speed quantum communication
journal, January 2016


Hiding Single Photons with Spread Spectrum Technology
journal, June 2010


Persistent energy–time entanglement covering multiple resonances of an on-chip biphoton frequency comb
journal, January 2017


Bandwidth manipulation of quantum light by an electro-optic time lens
journal, November 2016

  • Karpiński, Michał; Jachura, Michał; Wright, Laura J.
  • Nature Photonics, Vol. 11, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2016.228

Integrated optomechanical single-photon frequency shifter
journal, October 2016


Electro-optic modulation for high-speed characterization of entangled photon pairs
journal, January 2015

  • Lukens, Joseph M.; Odele, Ogaga D.; Leaird, Daniel E.
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.40.005331

All-photonic quantum repeaters
journal, April 2015

  • Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7787

Shaping frequency-entangled qudits
journal, September 2013


Group transformations and entangled-state quantum gates with directionally unbiased linear-optical multiports
journal, April 2016

  • Simon, David S.; Fitzpatrick, Casey A.; Sergienko, Alexander V.
  • Physical Review A, Vol. 93, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.043845

On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control
journal, June 2017

  • Kues, Michael; Reimer, Christian; Roztocki, Piotr
  • Nature, Vol. 546, Issue 7660
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature22986

Electro-Optic Modulation of Single Photons
journal, September 2008


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Exploring the limits of semiconductor-laser-based optical frequency combs
    journal, January 2019

    • Delfyett, Peter J.; Klee, A.; Bagnell, K.
    • Applied Optics, Vol. 58, Issue 13
    • DOI: 10.1364/ao.58.000d39

      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.