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Title: Use of reconstructed 3D equilibria to determine onset conditions of helical cores in tokamaks for extrapolation to ITER

Abstract

In this paper, large, spontaneous m/n = 1/1 helical cores are shown to be expected in tokamaks such as ITER with extended regions of low- or reversed- magnetic shear profiles and q near 1 in the core. The threshold for this spontaneous symmetry breaking is determined using VMEC scans, beginning with reconstructed 3D equilibria from DIII-D and Alcator C-Mod based on observed internal 3D deformations. The helical core is a saturated internal kink mode (Wesson 1986 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 28 243); its onset threshold is shown to be proportional to $$({\rm d}p/{\rm d}\rho)/B_t^2$$ around q = 1. Below the threshold, applied 3D fields can drive a helical core to finite size, as in DIII-D. The helical core size thereby depends on the magnitude of the applied perturbation. Above it, a small, random 3D kick causes a bifurcation from axisymmetry and excites a spontaneous helical core, which is independent of the kick size. Systematic scans of the q-profile show that the onset threshold is very sensitive to the q-shear in the core. Helical cores occur frequently in Alcator C-Mod during ramp-up when slow current penetration results in a reversed shear q-profile, which is favorable for helical core formation. In conclusion, a comparison of the helical core onset threshold for discharges from DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod and ITER confirms that while DIII-D is marginally stable, Alcator C-Mod and especially ITER are highly susceptible to helical core formation without being driven by an externally applied 3D magnetic field.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [3]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  3. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24)
OSTI Identifier:
1422609
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1375431
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; AC02-09CH11466; FC02-04ER54698
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Fusion
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 58; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5515
Publisher:
IOP Science
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Wingen, A., Wilcox, R. S., Seal, S. K., Unterberg, E. A., Cianciosa, M. R., Delgado-Aparicio, L. F., Hirshman, S. P., and Lao, L. L. Use of reconstructed 3D equilibria to determine onset conditions of helical cores in tokamaks for extrapolation to ITER. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aaa33d.
Wingen, A., Wilcox, R. S., Seal, S. K., Unterberg, E. A., Cianciosa, M. R., Delgado-Aparicio, L. F., Hirshman, S. P., & Lao, L. L. Use of reconstructed 3D equilibria to determine onset conditions of helical cores in tokamaks for extrapolation to ITER. United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aaa33d.
Wingen, A., Wilcox, R. S., Seal, S. K., Unterberg, E. A., Cianciosa, M. R., Delgado-Aparicio, L. F., Hirshman, S. P., and Lao, L. L. Mon . "Use of reconstructed 3D equilibria to determine onset conditions of helical cores in tokamaks for extrapolation to ITER". United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aaa33d. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1422609.
@article{osti_1422609,
title = {Use of reconstructed 3D equilibria to determine onset conditions of helical cores in tokamaks for extrapolation to ITER},
author = {Wingen, A. and Wilcox, R. S. and Seal, S. K. and Unterberg, E. A. and Cianciosa, M. R. and Delgado-Aparicio, L. F. and Hirshman, S. P. and Lao, L. L.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, large, spontaneous m/n = 1/1 helical cores are shown to be expected in tokamaks such as ITER with extended regions of low- or reversed- magnetic shear profiles and q near 1 in the core. The threshold for this spontaneous symmetry breaking is determined using VMEC scans, beginning with reconstructed 3D equilibria from DIII-D and Alcator C-Mod based on observed internal 3D deformations. The helical core is a saturated internal kink mode (Wesson 1986 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 28 243); its onset threshold is shown to be proportional to $({\rm d}p/{\rm d}\rho)/B_t^2$ around q = 1. Below the threshold, applied 3D fields can drive a helical core to finite size, as in DIII-D. The helical core size thereby depends on the magnitude of the applied perturbation. Above it, a small, random 3D kick causes a bifurcation from axisymmetry and excites a spontaneous helical core, which is independent of the kick size. Systematic scans of the q-profile show that the onset threshold is very sensitive to the q-shear in the core. Helical cores occur frequently in Alcator C-Mod during ramp-up when slow current penetration results in a reversed shear q-profile, which is favorable for helical core formation. In conclusion, a comparison of the helical core onset threshold for discharges from DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod and ITER confirms that while DIII-D is marginally stable, Alcator C-Mod and especially ITER are highly susceptible to helical core formation without being driven by an externally applied 3D magnetic field.},
doi = {10.1088/1741-4326/aaa33d},
journal = {Nuclear Fusion},
number = 3,
volume = 58,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

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Figure 1 Figure 1: Time evolution of the local soft X-ray emission along the major radius at Z = 0 in shot 164661, obtained by tomographic inversion of measured, line-integrated soft-X-ray data.

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