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Title: Analysis of Rate-Limiting Factors in Thick Electrodes for Electric Vehicle Applications

Abstract

Increasing electrode thickness and loading can help Li-ion batteries achieve higher energy densities, but the resulting decay in electrochemical performance at elevated rates remains a significant challenge. In order to design an optimal thick electrode, understanding how performance loss occurs is necessary. While it is known that both ionic and electronic conductivity contribute to rate performance, we observed a stronger correlation between electronic conductivity and electrochemical performance of electrodes at a loading of >25 mg/cm 2 under C/3 to 1C, rates most relevant to electric vehicle applications. To illustrate this effect, we explore the mud-cracking phenomenon during electrode fabrication to obtain narrow, vertical channels which reduce electrode tortuosity, and therefore decrease the liquid phase ionic resistance in thick electrodes. Variation in crack densities enables us to systematically investigate the effects of ionic and electronic conductivity on electrochemical performance in electrodes with identical overall porosity and composition. Rate and cycling performances of mud-cracked thick electrodes have stronger correlations with electronic conductivity than ionic conductivity. These findings shed new light on the relative importance of electronic versus ionic conductivities, arguing for the need to further optimize electronic conduction in thick electrodes when they are cycled in conditions relevant to electric vehicle applications.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1422415
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1509876
Grant/Contract Number:  
EE0007764
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 165; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Publisher:
The Electrochemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; electronic conductivity; mud-crack; thick electrode

Citation Formats

Lee, Byoung-Sun, Wu, Zhaohui, Petrova, Victoria, Xing, Xing, Lim, Hee-Dae, Liu, Haodong, and Liu, Ping. Analysis of Rate-Limiting Factors in Thick Electrodes for Electric Vehicle Applications. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1149/2.0571803jes.
Lee, Byoung-Sun, Wu, Zhaohui, Petrova, Victoria, Xing, Xing, Lim, Hee-Dae, Liu, Haodong, & Liu, Ping. Analysis of Rate-Limiting Factors in Thick Electrodes for Electric Vehicle Applications. United States. doi:10.1149/2.0571803jes.
Lee, Byoung-Sun, Wu, Zhaohui, Petrova, Victoria, Xing, Xing, Lim, Hee-Dae, Liu, Haodong, and Liu, Ping. Thu . "Analysis of Rate-Limiting Factors in Thick Electrodes for Electric Vehicle Applications". United States. doi:10.1149/2.0571803jes.
@article{osti_1422415,
title = {Analysis of Rate-Limiting Factors in Thick Electrodes for Electric Vehicle Applications},
author = {Lee, Byoung-Sun and Wu, Zhaohui and Petrova, Victoria and Xing, Xing and Lim, Hee-Dae and Liu, Haodong and Liu, Ping},
abstractNote = {Increasing electrode thickness and loading can help Li-ion batteries achieve higher energy densities, but the resulting decay in electrochemical performance at elevated rates remains a significant challenge. In order to design an optimal thick electrode, understanding how performance loss occurs is necessary. While it is known that both ionic and electronic conductivity contribute to rate performance, we observed a stronger correlation between electronic conductivity and electrochemical performance of electrodes at a loading of >25 mg/cm2 under C/3 to 1C, rates most relevant to electric vehicle applications. To illustrate this effect, we explore the mud-cracking phenomenon during electrode fabrication to obtain narrow, vertical channels which reduce electrode tortuosity, and therefore decrease the liquid phase ionic resistance in thick electrodes. Variation in crack densities enables us to systematically investigate the effects of ionic and electronic conductivity on electrochemical performance in electrodes with identical overall porosity and composition. Rate and cycling performances of mud-cracked thick electrodes have stronger correlations with electronic conductivity than ionic conductivity. These findings shed new light on the relative importance of electronic versus ionic conductivities, arguing for the need to further optimize electronic conduction in thick electrodes when they are cycled in conditions relevant to electric vehicle applications.},
doi = {10.1149/2.0571803jes},
journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
number = 3,
volume = 165,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1149/2.0571803jes

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Schematic diagrams of mud-crack formed electrode (a) and comparison of general and mud-cracked discharge process and expected depth of discharge profiles in a normal electrode (b) and mud-cracked electrode (c).

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.