skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Transcranial direct current stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during encoding improves recall but not recognition memory

Abstract

Prior work demonstrates that application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves memory. In this study, we investigated tDCS effects on face-name associative memory using both recall and recognition tests. Participants encoded face-name pairs under either active (1.5 mA) or sham (.1 mA) stimulation applied to the scalp adjacent to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), an area known to support associative memory. Participants’ memory was then tested after study (day one) and then again after a 24-h delay (day two), to assess both immediate and delayed stimulation effects on memory. Results indicated that active relative to sham stimulation led to substantially improved recall (more than 50%) at both day one and day two. Recognition memory performance did not differ between stimulation groups at either time point. These results suggest that stimulation at encoding improves memory performance by enhancing memory for details that enable a rich recollective experience, but that these improvements are evident only under some testing conditions, especially those that rely on recollection. Altogether, stimulation of the dlPFC could have led to recall improvement through enhanced encoding from stimulation or from carryover effects of stimulation that influenced retrieval processes, or both.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Institutes of Health (NIH); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1421859
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1549355
Report Number(s):
SAND-2017-13369J
Journal ID: ISSN 0028-3932; 659419
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000; NA0003525
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Neuropsychologia
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 106; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0028-3932
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; Brain stimulation; tDCS; dlPFC; Immediate effects of tDCS; Delayed effects of tDCS; Associative memory; Recall; Recognition; Episodic memory

Citation Formats

Leshikar, Eric D., Leach, Ryan C., McCurdy, Matthew P., Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan, Sklenar, Allison M., Frankenstein, Andrea N., and Matzen, Laura E.. Transcranial direct current stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during encoding improves recall but not recognition memory. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.10.022.
Leshikar, Eric D., Leach, Ryan C., McCurdy, Matthew P., Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan, Sklenar, Allison M., Frankenstein, Andrea N., & Matzen, Laura E.. Transcranial direct current stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during encoding improves recall but not recognition memory. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.10.022
Leshikar, Eric D., Leach, Ryan C., McCurdy, Matthew P., Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan, Sklenar, Allison M., Frankenstein, Andrea N., and Matzen, Laura E.. Thu . "Transcranial direct current stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during encoding improves recall but not recognition memory". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.10.022. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1421859.
@article{osti_1421859,
title = {Transcranial direct current stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during encoding improves recall but not recognition memory},
author = {Leshikar, Eric D. and Leach, Ryan C. and McCurdy, Matthew P. and Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan and Sklenar, Allison M. and Frankenstein, Andrea N. and Matzen, Laura E.},
abstractNote = {Prior work demonstrates that application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves memory. In this study, we investigated tDCS effects on face-name associative memory using both recall and recognition tests. Participants encoded face-name pairs under either active (1.5 mA) or sham (.1 mA) stimulation applied to the scalp adjacent to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), an area known to support associative memory. Participants’ memory was then tested after study (day one) and then again after a 24-h delay (day two), to assess both immediate and delayed stimulation effects on memory. Results indicated that active relative to sham stimulation led to substantially improved recall (more than 50%) at both day one and day two. Recognition memory performance did not differ between stimulation groups at either time point. These results suggest that stimulation at encoding improves memory performance by enhancing memory for details that enable a rich recollective experience, but that these improvements are evident only under some testing conditions, especially those that rely on recollection. Altogether, stimulation of the dlPFC could have led to recall improvement through enhanced encoding from stimulation or from carryover effects of stimulation that influenced retrieval processes, or both.},
doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.10.022},
journal = {Neuropsychologia},
number = C,
volume = 106,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Optimizing Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Protocols to Promote Long-Term Learning
journal, January 2017

  • Au, Jacky; Karsten, Carley; Buschkuehl, Martin
  • Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s41465-017-0007-6

Mechanisms of Action Underlying the Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Mood: Behavioral and Brain Imaging Studies
journal, March 2004

  • Barrett, Jennifer; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; Chouinard, Philippe A.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 29, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1300411

The action of brief polarizing currents on the cerebral cortex of the rat (1) during current flow and (2) in the production of long-lasting after-effects
journal, August 1964


Putting the Pieces Together: The Role of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Relational Memory Encoding
journal, January 2011

  • Blumenfeld, Robert S.; Parks, Colleen M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.
  • Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 23, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1162/jocn.2010.21459

Temporal Lobe Cortical Electrical Stimulation during the Encoding and Retrieval Phase Reduces False Memories
journal, March 2009


Visual memory improved by non-invasive brain stimulation
journal, September 2010


Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) produces localized and specific alterations in neurochemistry: A 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
journal, August 2011


Perception of comfort during transcranial DC stimulation: Effect of NaCl solution concentration applied to sponge electrodes
journal, May 2007


FACES—A database of facial expressions in young, middle-aged, and older women and men: Development and validation
journal, February 2010

  • Ebner, Natalie C.; Riediger, Michaela; Lindenberger, Ulman
  • Behavior Research Methods, Vol. 42, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3758/BRM.42.1.351

Direct current induced short-term modulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while learning auditory presented nouns
journal, January 2009

  • Elmer, Stefan; Burkard, Marcel; Renz, Basil
  • Behavioral and Brain Functions, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-5-29

Noninvasive Brain Stimulation Improves Language Learning
journal, August 2008

  • Flöel, Agnes; Rösser, Nina; Michka, Olesya
  • Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 20, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1162/jocn.2008.20098

Non-invasive brain stimulation improves object-location learning in the elderly
journal, August 2012


Rapid Modulation of GABA Concentration in Human Sensorimotor Cortex During Motor Learning
journal, March 2006

  • Floyer-Lea, Anna; Wylezinska, Marzena; Kincses, Tamas
  • Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol. 95, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1152/jn.00346.2005

Electrically stimulating prefrontal cortex at retrieval improves recollection accuracy
journal, December 2015


Errorless and errorful learning modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation
journal, January 2011

  • Hammer, Anke; Mohammadi, Bahram; Schmicker, Marlen
  • BMC Neuroscience, Vol. 12, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-12-72

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Modulates Activation and Effective Connectivity During Spatial Navigation
journal, March 2014

  • Hampstead, Benjamin M.; Brown, Gregory S.; Hartley, Justin F.
  • Brain Stimulation, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.brs.2013.12.006

Baseline effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on glutamatergic neurotransmission and large-scale network connectivity
journal, January 2015


Short duration transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates verbal memory
journal, October 2012


Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates declarative memory
journal, July 2012


Recollection Training and Transfer Effects in Older Adults: Successful Use of a Repetition-Lag Procedure
journal, September 2005

  • Jennings, Janine M.; Webster, Lauren M.; Kleykamp, Bethea A.
  • Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, Vol. 12, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1080/138255890968312

Enhanced long-term memory encoding after parietal neurostimulation
journal, September 2014

  • Jones, Kevin T.; Gözenman, Filiz; Berryhill, Marian E.
  • Experimental Brain Research, Vol. 232, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00221-014-4090-y

Transcranial direct current stimulation in the treatment of major depression: a meta-analysis
journal, January 2012


Medial prefrontal cortex supports source memory accuracy for self-referenced items
journal, March 2012


Medial prefrontal cortex supports source memory for self-referenced materials in young and older adults
journal, August 2013

  • Leshikar, Eric D.; Duarte, Audrey
  • Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 14, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3758/s13415-013-0198-y

Task-Selective Memory Effects for Successfully Implemented Encoding Strategies
journal, May 2012


Self-referencing enhances recollection in both young and older adults
journal, September 2014

  • Leshikar, Eric D.; Dulas, Michael R.; Duarte, Audrey
  • Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, Vol. 22, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1080/13825585.2014.957150

Similarity to the self affects memory for impressions of others
journal, March 2015

  • Leshikar, Eric D.; Gutchess, Angela H.
  • Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jarmac.2014.10.002

Effect of prefrontal and parietal tDCS on learning and recognition of verbal and non-verbal material
journal, July 2016


Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation during Sleep Improves Declarative Memory
journal, November 2004


Effects of non-invasive brain stimulation on associative memory
journal, October 2015


The generation effect revisited: Fewer generation constraints enhances item and context memory
journal, February 2017

  • McCurdy, Matthew P.; Leach, Ryan C.; Leshikar, Eric D.
  • Journal of Memory and Language, Vol. 92
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jml.2016.06.007

Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Temporarily Reverses Age-Associated Cognitive Decline and Functional Brain Activity Changes
journal, July 2013


What does the ratio of injected current to electrode area tell us about current density in the brain during tDCS?
journal, June 2009


The Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Contributes to Successful Relational Memory Encoding
journal, May 2007


Pharmacological Modulation of Cortical Excitability Shifts Induced by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Humans
journal, November 2003


Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation
journal, September 2000


Consolidation of Human Motor Cortical Neuroplasticity by D-Cycloserine
journal, June 2004

  • Nitsche, Michael A.; Jaussi, Wiebke; Liebetanz, David
  • Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 29, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1300517

Level of action of cathodal DC polarisation induced inhibition of the human motor cortex
journal, April 2003


Time-dependent effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on the enhancement of working memory
journal, January 2008


Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Episodic Memory Related to Emotional Visual Stimuli
journal, May 2010


Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the parietal cortex leads to increased false recognition
journal, January 2015


Transcranial direct current stimulation over the parietal cortex alters bias in item and source memory tasks
journal, October 2016


Guess who? Investigating the proper name processing network by means of tDCS
journal, January 2015


Binding Items and Contexts: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Episodic Memory
journal, June 2010


Strengthening of horizontal cortical connections following skill learning
journal, July 1998

  • Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia -S.; Friedman, Daniel; Hess, Grzegorz
  • Nature Neuroscience, Vol. 1, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/678

Test-Enhanced Learning: Taking Memory Tests Improves Long-Term Retention
journal, March 2006


Pragmatics of measuring recognition memory: Applications to dementia and amnesia.
journal, January 1988


Putting names to faces:
journal, October 2003


Polarity-Sensitive Modulation of Cortical Neurotransmitters by Transcranial Stimulation
journal, April 2009


Physiological Basis of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
journal, February 2011


Recognition memory for faces: When familiarity supports associative recognition judgments
journal, December 1999

  • Yonelinas, A. P.; Kroll, N. E. A.; Dobbins, I. G.
  • Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Vol. 6, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.3758/BF03212975

The Nature of Recollection and Familiarity: A Review of 30 Years of Research
journal, April 2002


Neuroenhancement of the aging brain: Restoring skill acquisition in old subjects
journal, December 2012

  • Zimerman, Máximo; Nitsch, Marie; Giraux, Pascal
  • Annals of Neurology, Vol. 73, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/ana.23761

Shaping Memory Accuracy by Left Prefrontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
journal, March 2014


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Anodal tDCS Effects on Verbal Episodic Memory: Modeling Heterogeneity of Stimulation Locations
    journal, March 2020

    • Bartl, Gergely Janos; Blackshaw, Emily; Crossman, Margot
    • Zeitschrift für Psychologie, Vol. 228, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000396

    Differential Age Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Associative Memory
    journal, February 2018

    • Leach, Ryan C.; McCurdy, Matthew P.; Trumbo, Michael C.
    • The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Vol. 74, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gby003