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Title: Elimination of active species crossover in a room temperature, neutral pH, aqueous flow battery using a ceramic NaSICON membrane

Flow batteries are an attractive technology for energy storage of grid-scale renewables. However, performance issues related to ion-exchange membrane (IEM) fouling and crossover of species have limited the success of flow batteries. In this work we propose the use of the solid-state sodium-ion conductor NaSICON as an IEM to fully eliminate active species crossover in room temperature, aqueous, neutral pH flow batteries. We measure the room temperature conductivity of NaSICON at 2.83–4.67 mS cm –1 and demonstrate stability of NaSICON in an aqueous electrolyte with conductivity values remaining near 2.5 mS cm –1 after 66 days of exposure. Charge and discharge of a full H-cell battery as well as symmetric cycling in a flow battery configuration using NaSICON as an IEM in both cases demonstrates the capability of the solid-state IEM. Extensive analysis of aged cells through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and UV–vis spectroscopy show no contaminant species having crossed over the NaSICON membrane after 83 days of exposure, yielding an upper limit to the permeability of NaSICON of 4 × 10 –10 cm 2 min –1. As a result, the demonstration of NaSICON as an IEM enables a wide new range of chemistries for application to flow batteries thatmore » would previously be impeded by species crossover and associated degradation.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
SAND-2017-13764J
Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753; 659654
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 378; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; Flow battery; Sodium-ion; Aqueous battery; Ion-exchange membrane; NaSICON
OSTI Identifier:
1421655