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Title: Changing character of rainfall in eastern China, 1951–2007

Abstract

The topography and continental configuration of East Asia favor the year-round existence of storm tracks that extend thousands of kilometers from China into the northwestern Pacific Ocean, producing zonally elongated patterns of rainfall that we call “frontal rain events.” In spring and early summer (known as “Meiyu Season”), frontal rainfall intensifies and shifts northward during a series of stages collectively known as the East Asian summer monsoon. Using a technique called the Frontal Rain Event Detection Algorithm, we create a daily catalog of all frontal rain events in east China during 1951–2007, quantify their attributes, and classify all rainfall on each day as either frontal, resulting from large-scale convergence, or nonfrontal, produced by local buoyancy, topography, or typhoons. Our climatology shows that the East Asian summer monsoon consists of a series of coupled changes in frontal rain event frequency, latitude, and daily accumulation. Furthermore, decadal changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall in east China are overwhelmingly due to changes in frontal rainfall. We attribute the “South Flood–North Drought” pattern observed beginning in the 1980s to changes in the frequency of frontal rain events, while the years 1994–2007 witnessed an uptick in event daily accumulation relative to the restmore » of the study years. This particular signature may reflect the relative impacts of global warming, aerosol loading, and natural variability on regional rainfall, potentially via shifting the East Asian jet stream.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1420354
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1527124
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0014078; EAR-0909195; EAR-1211925; 40921120406
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Journal Volume: 115 Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; East Asian monsoon; monsoons; rainfall; Meiyu front; new methods

Citation Formats

Day, Jesse A., Fung, Inez, and Liu, Weihan. Changing character of rainfall in eastern China, 1951–2007. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1715386115.
Day, Jesse A., Fung, Inez, & Liu, Weihan. Changing character of rainfall in eastern China, 1951–2007. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1715386115.
Day, Jesse A., Fung, Inez, and Liu, Weihan. Mon . "Changing character of rainfall in eastern China, 1951–2007". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1715386115.
@article{osti_1420354,
title = {Changing character of rainfall in eastern China, 1951–2007},
author = {Day, Jesse A. and Fung, Inez and Liu, Weihan},
abstractNote = {The topography and continental configuration of East Asia favor the year-round existence of storm tracks that extend thousands of kilometers from China into the northwestern Pacific Ocean, producing zonally elongated patterns of rainfall that we call “frontal rain events.” In spring and early summer (known as “Meiyu Season”), frontal rainfall intensifies and shifts northward during a series of stages collectively known as the East Asian summer monsoon. Using a technique called the Frontal Rain Event Detection Algorithm, we create a daily catalog of all frontal rain events in east China during 1951–2007, quantify their attributes, and classify all rainfall on each day as either frontal, resulting from large-scale convergence, or nonfrontal, produced by local buoyancy, topography, or typhoons. Our climatology shows that the East Asian summer monsoon consists of a series of coupled changes in frontal rain event frequency, latitude, and daily accumulation. Furthermore, decadal changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall in east China are overwhelmingly due to changes in frontal rainfall. We attribute the “South Flood–North Drought” pattern observed beginning in the 1980s to changes in the frequency of frontal rain events, while the years 1994–2007 witnessed an uptick in event daily accumulation relative to the rest of the study years. This particular signature may reflect the relative impacts of global warming, aerosol loading, and natural variability on regional rainfall, potentially via shifting the East Asian jet stream.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1715386115},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 9,
volume = 115,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715386115

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 5 works
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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Climatological rainfall, frontal rainfall, and nonfrontal rainfall for the full year, pre-Meiyu (days 121 to 160), Meiyu (days 161 to 200), and post-Meiyu (days 201 to 273). Frontal rainfall consists of all rainfall falling within 4° of a frontal rain event’s axis and rainfall at any other adjacentmore » point exceeding 10 mm·d−1. Nonfrontal rainfall includes all rainfall not meeting these criteria. Note that the color bar switches from 0.5 mm·d−1 to 1 mm·d−1 increments past 5 mm·d−1.« less

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.