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Title: Roadmap of ultrafast x-ray atomic and molecular physics

X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) and table-top sources of x-rays based upon high harmonic generation (HHG) have revolutionized the field of ultrafast x-ray atomic and molecular physics, largely due to an explosive growth in capabilities in the past decade. XFELs now provide unprecedented intensity (10 20 W cm -2) of x-rays at wavelengths down to ~1 Ångstrom, and HHG provides unprecedented time resolution (~50 attoseconds) and a correspondingly large coherent bandwidth at longer wavelengths. For context, timescales can be referenced to the Bohr orbital period in hydrogen atom of 150 attoseconds and the hydrogen-molecule vibrational period of 8 femtoseconds; wavelength scales can be referenced to the chemically significant carbon K-edge at a photon energy of ~280 eV (44 Ångstroms) and the bond length in methane of ~1 Ångstrom. With these modern x-ray sources one now has the ability to focus on individual atoms, even when embedded in a complex molecule, and view electronic and nuclear motion on their intrinsic scales (attoseconds and Ångstroms). These sources have enabled coherent diffractive imaging, where one can image non-crystalline objects in three dimensions on ultrafast timescales, potentially with atomic resolution. The unprecedented intensity available with XFELs has opened new fields of multiphoton and nonlinear x-raymore » physics where behavior of matter under extreme conditions can be explored. The unprecedented time resolution and pulse synchronization provided by HHG sources has kindled fundamental investigations of time delays in photoionization, charge migration in molecules, and dynamics near conical intersections that are foundational to AMO physics and chemistry. This roadmap coincides with the year when three new XFEL facilities, operating at Ångstrom wavelengths, opened for users (European XFEL, Swiss-FEL and PAL-FEL in Korea) almost doubling the present worldwide number of XFELs, and documents the remarkable progress in HHG capabilities since its discovery roughly 30 years ago, showcasing experiments in AMO physics and other applications. Here in this paper, we capture the perspectives of 17 leading groups and organize the contributions into four categories: ultrafast molecular dynamics, multidimensional x-ray spectroscopies; high-intensity x-ray phenomena; attosecond x-ray science.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ; ORCiD logo [8] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [10] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [13] ;  [7] ;  [14] ;  [14] ; ORCiD logo [15] ;  [15] more »; ORCiD logo [16] ; ORCiD logo [17] ;  [17] ;  [17] ;  [17] ; ORCiD logo [18] ;  [19] « less
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst., Dept. of Physics
  2. Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials
  3. Potsdam Univ., Potsdam-Golm (Germany). Inst. for Physics and Astronomy; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Photon Ultrafast Laser Science and Engineering Inst. (PULSE)
  4. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Photon Ultrafast Laser Science and Engineering Inst. (PULSE); Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  5. Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France). Laboratoire de Chimie Physique- Matiere et Rayonnement
  6. Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  7. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Center for Free-Electron Laser Science; Univ. of Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Physics
  8. Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy)
  9. European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL), Hamburg (Germany)
  10. Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). J.R. Macdonald Lab., Dept. of Physics
  11. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  12. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Photon Ultrafast Laser Science and Engineering Inst. (PULSE); Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  13. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Photon Ultrafast Laser Science and Engineering Inst. (PULSE)
  14. Joint Inst. for Lab. Astrophysics (JILA), Boulder, CO (United States). Center for Atomic, Molecular & Optical Physics; Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics and Electrical and Computer Engineering
  15. Inst. National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Energie, Materiaux, et Telecommunications, Varennes, QC (Canada)
  16. Max Born Inst., Berlin (Germany)
  17. Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics, Atomic Physics
  18. Federal Inst. of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Laboratorium fur Physikalische Chemie
  19. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; SC0016494; ITAMP; ELI project-ESFRI Roadmap; ASPIRE / No. 674960; MEDEA / No. 641789; LASERLAB-EUROPE / No. 654148; Starting Research Grant MIDAS / Gra; Starting Research Grant UDYNI
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Physics. B, Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 51; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0953-4075
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ultrafast molecular dynamics; x-ray spectroscopies and phenomena; table-top sources; x-ray free-electron lasers; attosecond phenomena
OSTI Identifier:
1419966
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1459518