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Title: Air-stable and freestanding lithium alloy/graphene foil as an alternative to lithium metal anodes

Developing high-capacity anodes is a must to improve the energy density of lithium batteries for electric vehicle applications. Alloy anodes are one promising option, but without pre-stored lithium, the overall energy density is limited by the low-capacity lithium metal oxide cathodes. Recently, lithium metal has been revived as a high-capacity anode, but faces several challenges owing to its high reactivity and uncontrolled dendrite growth. Here, we show a series of Li-containing foils inheriting the desirable properties of alloy anodes and pure metal anodes. They consist of densely packed Li xM (M = Si, Sn, or Al) nanoparticles encapsulated by large graphene sheets. With the protection of graphene sheets, the large and freestanding Li xM/graphene foils are stable in different air conditions. With fully expanded Li xSi confined in the highly conductive and chemically stable graphene matrix, this LixSi/graphene foil maintains a stable structure and cyclability in half cells (400 cycles with 98% capacity retention). As a result, this foil is also paired with high-capacity Li-free V 2O 5 and sulfur cathodes to achieve stable full-cell cycling.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (People's Republic of China); Tsinghua Univ., Shenzhen (People's Republic of China)
  3. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Nanotechnology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-3387
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE
OSTI Identifier:
1419656

Zhao, Jie, Zhou, Guangmin, Yan, Kai, Xie, Jin, Li, Yuzhang, Liao, Lei, Jin, Yang, Liu, Kai, Hsu, Po -Chun, Wang, Jiangyan, Cheng, Hui-Ming, and Cui, Yi. Air-stable and freestanding lithium alloy/graphene foil as an alternative to lithium metal anodes. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.129.
Zhao, Jie, Zhou, Guangmin, Yan, Kai, Xie, Jin, Li, Yuzhang, Liao, Lei, Jin, Yang, Liu, Kai, Hsu, Po -Chun, Wang, Jiangyan, Cheng, Hui-Ming, & Cui, Yi. Air-stable and freestanding lithium alloy/graphene foil as an alternative to lithium metal anodes. United States. doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.129.
Zhao, Jie, Zhou, Guangmin, Yan, Kai, Xie, Jin, Li, Yuzhang, Liao, Lei, Jin, Yang, Liu, Kai, Hsu, Po -Chun, Wang, Jiangyan, Cheng, Hui-Ming, and Cui, Yi. 2017. "Air-stable and freestanding lithium alloy/graphene foil as an alternative to lithium metal anodes". United States. doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.129. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1419656.
@article{osti_1419656,
title = {Air-stable and freestanding lithium alloy/graphene foil as an alternative to lithium metal anodes},
author = {Zhao, Jie and Zhou, Guangmin and Yan, Kai and Xie, Jin and Li, Yuzhang and Liao, Lei and Jin, Yang and Liu, Kai and Hsu, Po -Chun and Wang, Jiangyan and Cheng, Hui-Ming and Cui, Yi},
abstractNote = {Developing high-capacity anodes is a must to improve the energy density of lithium batteries for electric vehicle applications. Alloy anodes are one promising option, but without pre-stored lithium, the overall energy density is limited by the low-capacity lithium metal oxide cathodes. Recently, lithium metal has been revived as a high-capacity anode, but faces several challenges owing to its high reactivity and uncontrolled dendrite growth. Here, we show a series of Li-containing foils inheriting the desirable properties of alloy anodes and pure metal anodes. They consist of densely packed LixM (M = Si, Sn, or Al) nanoparticles encapsulated by large graphene sheets. With the protection of graphene sheets, the large and freestanding LixM/graphene foils are stable in different air conditions. With fully expanded LixSi confined in the highly conductive and chemically stable graphene matrix, this LixSi/graphene foil maintains a stable structure and cyclability in half cells (400 cycles with 98% capacity retention). As a result, this foil is also paired with high-capacity Li-free V2O5 and sulfur cathodes to achieve stable full-cell cycling.},
doi = {10.1038/nnano.2017.129},
journal = {Nature Nanotechnology},
number = 10,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {7}
}

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