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Title: High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium wallsa)

The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasm surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.
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  1. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543, USA
  2. Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA
  4. University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
  5. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA
  6. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X; PHPAEN; DOE-PU-0008598-14
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0008598; AC02-09CH11466; AC05-00OR22725; AC52-07NA27344
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 22; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24)
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1228242; OSTI ID: 1392270