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Title: ψ ( 2 S ) versus J / ψ suppression in proton-nucleus collisions from factorization violating soft color exchanges

Here, we argue that the large suppression of the $$\psi(2S)$$ inclusive cross-section relative to the $$J/\psi$$ inclusive cross-section in proton-nucleus (p+A) collisions can be attributed to factorization breaking effects in the formation of quarkonium. These factorization breaking effects arise from soft color exchanges between charm-anticharm pairs undergoing hadronization and comoving partons that are long-lived on time scales of quarkonium formation. We compute the short distance pair production of heavy quarks in the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) effective field theory and employ an improved Color Evaporation model (ICEM) to describe their hadronization into quarkonium at large distances. The combined CGC+ICEM model provides a quantitative description of $$J/\psi$$ and $$\psi(2S)$$ data in proton-proton (p+p) collisions from both RHIC and the LHC. Factorization breaking effects in hadronization, due to additional parton comovers in the nucleus, are introduced heuristically by imposing a cutoff $$\Lambda$$, representing the momentum kick from soft color exchanges, in the ICEM model. Such soft exchanges have no perceptible effect on $$J/\psi$$ suppression in p+A collisions. In contrast, the interplay of the physics of these soft exchanges at large distances, with the physics of semi-hard rescattering at short distances, causes a significant additional suppression of $$\psi(2S)$$ yields relative to that of the $$J/\psi$$. A good fit of all RHIC and LHC $$J/\psi$$ and $$\psi(2S)$$ data, for transverse momenta $$P_\perp\leq 5$$ GeV in p+p and p+A collisions, is obtained for $$\Lambda\sim 10$$ MeV.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4]
  1. Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  3. Central China Normal Univ., Wuhan (China); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
  4. Third Military Medical Univ., Chongqing (China)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
JLAB-THY-17-2528; DOE/OR/23177-4192; arXiv:1707.07266; BNL-203406-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9985; PRVCAN; TRN: US1801308
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-06OR23177; FG02-97ER41028; SC0012704; 11575070
Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review C
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 97; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9985
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Research Org:
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS
OSTI Identifier:
1418877
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1418830; OSTI ID: 1431284

Ma, Yan -Qing, Venugopalan, Raju, Watanabe, Kazuhiro, and Zhang, Hong -Fei. ψ(2S) versus J/ψ suppression in proton-nucleus collisions from factorization violating soft color exchanges. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.97.014909.
Ma, Yan -Qing, Venugopalan, Raju, Watanabe, Kazuhiro, & Zhang, Hong -Fei. ψ(2S) versus J/ψ suppression in proton-nucleus collisions from factorization violating soft color exchanges. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.97.014909.
Ma, Yan -Qing, Venugopalan, Raju, Watanabe, Kazuhiro, and Zhang, Hong -Fei. 2018. "ψ(2S) versus J/ψ suppression in proton-nucleus collisions from factorization violating soft color exchanges". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.97.014909.
@article{osti_1418877,
title = {ψ(2S) versus J/ψ suppression in proton-nucleus collisions from factorization violating soft color exchanges},
author = {Ma, Yan -Qing and Venugopalan, Raju and Watanabe, Kazuhiro and Zhang, Hong -Fei},
abstractNote = {Here, we argue that the large suppression of the $\psi(2S)$ inclusive cross-section relative to the $J/\psi$ inclusive cross-section in proton-nucleus (p+A) collisions can be attributed to factorization breaking effects in the formation of quarkonium. These factorization breaking effects arise from soft color exchanges between charm-anticharm pairs undergoing hadronization and comoving partons that are long-lived on time scales of quarkonium formation. We compute the short distance pair production of heavy quarks in the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) effective field theory and employ an improved Color Evaporation model (ICEM) to describe their hadronization into quarkonium at large distances. The combined CGC+ICEM model provides a quantitative description of $J/\psi$ and $\psi(2S)$ data in proton-proton (p+p) collisions from both RHIC and the LHC. Factorization breaking effects in hadronization, due to additional parton comovers in the nucleus, are introduced heuristically by imposing a cutoff $\Lambda$, representing the momentum kick from soft color exchanges, in the ICEM model. Such soft exchanges have no perceptible effect on $J/\psi$ suppression in p+A collisions. In contrast, the interplay of the physics of these soft exchanges at large distances, with the physics of semi-hard rescattering at short distances, causes a significant additional suppression of $\psi(2S)$ yields relative to that of the $J/\psi$. A good fit of all RHIC and LHC $J/\psi$ and $\psi(2S)$ data, for transverse momenta $P_\perp\leq 5$ GeV in p+p and p+A collisions, is obtained for $\Lambda\sim 10$ MeV.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.97.014909},
journal = {Physical Review C},
number = 1,
volume = 97,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}