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Title: An Indication of Anisotropy in Arrival Directions of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays through Comparison to the Flux Pattern of Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Sources

Abstract

A new analysis of the dataset from the Pierre Auger Observatory provides evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays on an intermediate angular scale, which is indicative of excess arrivals from strong, nearby sources. The data consist of 5514 events above 20 EeV with zenith angles up to 80 deg recorded before 2017 April 30. Sky models have been created for two distinct populations of extragalactic gamma-ray emitters: active galactic nuclei from the second catalog of hard Fermi-LAT sources (2FHL) and starburst galaxies from a sample that was examined with Fermi-LAT. Flux-limited samples, which include all types of galaxies from the Swift-BAT and 2MASS surveys, have been investigated for comparison. The sky model of cosmic-ray density constructed using each catalog has two free parameters, the fraction of events correlating with astrophysical objects and an angular scale characterizing the clustering of cosmic rays around extragalactic sources. A maximum-likelihood ratio test is used to evaluate the best values of these parameters and to quantify the strength of each model by contrast with isotropy. It is found that the starburst model fits the data better than the hypothesis of isotropy with a statistical significance of 4.0 sigma, the highestmore » value of the test statistic being for energies above 39 EeV. The three alternative models are favored against isotropy with 2.7-3.2 sigma significance. The origin of the indicated deviation from isotropy is examined and prospects for more sensitive future studies are discussed.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
Pierre Auger Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1418449
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-17-358; arXiv:1801.06160
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213; 1648760; TRN: US1801274
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 853; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Albuquerque, I. F. M., Allekotte, I., Almela, A., Castillo, J. Alvarez, Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Anastasi, G. A., Anchordoqui, L., Andrada, B., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Arsene, N., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Avila, G., Badescu, A. M., Balaceanu, A., Barbato, F., Luz, R. J. Barreira, Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertaina, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Biteau, J., Blaess, S. G., Blanco, A., Blazek, J., Bleve, C., Boháčová, M., Bonifazi, C., Borodai, N., Botti, A. M., Brack, J., Brancus, I., Bretz, T., Bridgeman, A., Briechle, F. L., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, L., Cancio, A., Canfora, F., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Catalani, F., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Chavez, A. G., Chinellato, J. A., Chudoba, J., Clay, R. W., Cerutti, A. C. Cobos, Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Collica, L., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Consolati, G., Contreras, F., Cooper, M. J., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Cronin, J., D’Amico, S., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., Almeida, R. M. de, Jong, S. J. de, Mauro, G. De, de Mello Neto, J. R. T., Mitri, I. De, Oliveira, J. de, Souza, V. de, Debatin, J., Deligny, O., Castro, M. L. Díaz, Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., D’Olivo, J. C., Dorosti, Q., Anjos, R. C. dos, Dova, M. T., Dundovic, A., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Erfani, M., Escobar, C. O., Espadanal, J., Etchegoyen, A., Falcke, H., Farmer, J., Farrar, G., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Fenu, F., Fick, B., Figueira, J. M., Filipčič, A., Freire, M. M., Fujii, T., Fuster, A., Gaïor, R., García, B., Gaté, F., Gemmeke, H., Gherghel-Lascu, A., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Głas, D., Glaser, C., Golup, G., Berisso, M. Gómez, Vitale, P. F. Gómez, González, N., Gorgi, A., Grillo, A. F., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Halliday, R., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Herve, A. E., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Holt, E., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huege, T., Hulsman, J., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Johnsen, J. A., Josebachuili, M., Jurysek, J., Kääpä, A., Kambeitz, O., Kampert, K. H., Keilhauer, B., Kemmerich, N., Kemp, E., Kemp, J., Kieckhafer, R. M., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Krohm, N., Kuempel, D., Mezek, G. Kukec, Kunka, N., Awad, A. Kuotb, Lago, B. L., LaHurd, D., Lang, R. G., Lauscher, M., Legumina, R., Oliveira, M. A. Leigui de, Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Link, K., Presti, D. Lo, Lopes, L., López, R., Casado, A. López, Lorek, R., Luce, Q., Lucero, A., Malacari, M., Mallamaci, M., Mandat, D., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martinez, H., Bravo, O. Martínez, Meza, J. J. Masías, Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthiae, G., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina, C., Medina-Tanco, G., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Merenda, K. -D., Michal, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Mockler, D., Mollerach, S., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Morlino, G., Mostafá, M., Müller, A. L., Müller, G., Muller, M. A., Müller, S., Mussa, R., Naranjo, I., Nellen, L., Nguyen, P. H., Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M., Niechciol, M., Niemietz, L., Niggemann, T., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, L., Núñez, L. A., Oikonomou, F., Olinto, A., Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Paul, T., Pech, M., Pedreira, F., Pȩkala, J., Pelayo, R., Peña-Rodriguez, J., Pereira, L. A. S., Perlin, M., Perrone, L., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Phuntsok, J., Pierog, T., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Plum, M., Poh, J., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Quel, E. J., Querchfeld, S., Quinn, S., Ramos-Pollan, R., Rautenberg, J., Ravignani, D., Ridky, J., Riehn, F., Risse, M., Ristori, P., Rizi, V., Rodrigues de Carvalho, W., Rodriguez Fernandez, G., Rodriguez Rojo, J., Roncoroni, M. J., Roth, M., Roulet, E., Rovero, A. C., Ruehl, P., Saffi, S. J., Saftoiu, A., Salamida, F., Salazar, H., Saleh, A., Salina, G., Sánchez, F., Sanchez-Lucas, P., Santos, E. M., Santos, E., Sarazin, F., Sarmento, R., Sarmiento-Cano, C., Sato, R., Schauer, M., Scherini, V., Schieler, H., Schimp, M., Schmidt, D., Scholten, O., Schovánek, P., Schröder, F. G., Schröder, S., Schulz, A., Schumacher, J., Sciutto, S. J., Segreto, A., Shadkam, A., Shellard, R. C., Sigl, G., Silli, G., Šmída, R., Snow, G. R., Sommers, P., Sonntag, S., Soriano, J. F., Squartini, R., Stanca, D., Stanič, S., Stasielak, J., Stassi, P., Stolpovskiy, M., Strafella, F., Streich, A., Suarez, F., Durán, M. Suarez, Sudholz, T., Suomijärvi, T., Supanitsky, A. D., Šupík, J., Swain, J., Szadkowski, Z., Taboada, A., Taborda, O. A., Theodoro, V. M., Timmermans, C., Peixoto, C. J. Todero, Tomankova, L., Tomé, B., Elipe, G. Torralba, Travnicek, P., Trini, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Galicia, J. F. Valdés, Valiño, I., Valore, L., van Aar, G., van Bodegom, P., Berg, A. M. van den, Vliet, A. van, Varela, E., Cárdenas, B. Vargas, Vázquez, R. A., Veberič, D., Ventura, C., Quispe, I. D. Vergara, Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Villaseñor, L., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Wainberg, O., Walz, D., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weindl, A., Wiedeński, M., Wiencke, L., Wilczyński, H., Wirtz, M., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Yang, L., Yushkov, A., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zepeda, A., Zimmermann, B., Ziolkowski, M., Zong, Z., and Zuccarello, F. An Indication of Anisotropy in Arrival Directions of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays through Comparison to the Flux Pattern of Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Sources. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aaa66d.
Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Albuquerque, I. F. M., Allekotte, I., Almela, A., Castillo, J. Alvarez, Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Anastasi, G. A., Anchordoqui, L., Andrada, B., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Arsene, N., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Avila, G., Badescu, A. M., Balaceanu, A., Barbato, F., Luz, R. J. Barreira, Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertaina, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Biteau, J., Blaess, S. G., Blanco, A., Blazek, J., Bleve, C., Boháčová, M., Bonifazi, C., Borodai, N., Botti, A. M., Brack, J., Brancus, I., Bretz, T., Bridgeman, A., Briechle, F. L., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, L., Cancio, A., Canfora, F., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Catalani, F., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Chavez, A. G., Chinellato, J. A., Chudoba, J., Clay, R. W., Cerutti, A. C. Cobos, Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Collica, L., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Consolati, G., Contreras, F., Cooper, M. J., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Cronin, J., D’Amico, S., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., Almeida, R. M. de, Jong, S. J. de, Mauro, G. De, de Mello Neto, J. R. T., Mitri, I. De, Oliveira, J. de, Souza, V. de, Debatin, J., Deligny, O., Castro, M. L. Díaz, Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., D’Olivo, J. C., Dorosti, Q., Anjos, R. C. dos, Dova, M. T., Dundovic, A., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Erfani, M., Escobar, C. O., Espadanal, J., Etchegoyen, A., Falcke, H., Farmer, J., Farrar, G., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Fenu, F., Fick, B., Figueira, J. M., Filipčič, A., Freire, M. M., Fujii, T., Fuster, A., Gaïor, R., García, B., Gaté, F., Gemmeke, H., Gherghel-Lascu, A., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Głas, D., Glaser, C., Golup, G., Berisso, M. Gómez, Vitale, P. F. Gómez, González, N., Gorgi, A., Grillo, A. F., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Halliday, R., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Herve, A. E., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Holt, E., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huege, T., Hulsman, J., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Johnsen, J. A., Josebachuili, M., Jurysek, J., Kääpä, A., Kambeitz, O., Kampert, K. H., Keilhauer, B., Kemmerich, N., Kemp, E., Kemp, J., Kieckhafer, R. M., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Krohm, N., Kuempel, D., Mezek, G. Kukec, Kunka, N., Awad, A. Kuotb, Lago, B. L., LaHurd, D., Lang, R. G., Lauscher, M., Legumina, R., Oliveira, M. A. Leigui de, Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Link, K., Presti, D. Lo, Lopes, L., López, R., Casado, A. López, Lorek, R., Luce, Q., Lucero, A., Malacari, M., Mallamaci, M., Mandat, D., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martinez, H., Bravo, O. Martínez, Meza, J. J. Masías, Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthiae, G., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina, C., Medina-Tanco, G., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Merenda, K. -D., Michal, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Mockler, D., Mollerach, S., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Morlino, G., Mostafá, M., Müller, A. L., Müller, G., Muller, M. A., Müller, S., Mussa, R., Naranjo, I., Nellen, L., Nguyen, P. H., Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M., Niechciol, M., Niemietz, L., Niggemann, T., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, L., Núñez, L. A., Oikonomou, F., Olinto, A., Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Paul, T., Pech, M., Pedreira, F., Pȩkala, J., Pelayo, R., Peña-Rodriguez, J., Pereira, L. A. S., Perlin, M., Perrone, L., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Phuntsok, J., Pierog, T., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Plum, M., Poh, J., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Quel, E. J., Querchfeld, S., Quinn, S., Ramos-Pollan, R., Rautenberg, J., Ravignani, D., Ridky, J., Riehn, F., Risse, M., Ristori, P., Rizi, V., Rodrigues de Carvalho, W., Rodriguez Fernandez, G., Rodriguez Rojo, J., Roncoroni, M. J., Roth, M., Roulet, E., Rovero, A. C., Ruehl, P., Saffi, S. J., Saftoiu, A., Salamida, F., Salazar, H., Saleh, A., Salina, G., Sánchez, F., Sanchez-Lucas, P., Santos, E. M., Santos, E., Sarazin, F., Sarmento, R., Sarmiento-Cano, C., Sato, R., Schauer, M., Scherini, V., Schieler, H., Schimp, M., Schmidt, D., Scholten, O., Schovánek, P., Schröder, F. G., Schröder, S., Schulz, A., Schumacher, J., Sciutto, S. J., Segreto, A., Shadkam, A., Shellard, R. C., Sigl, G., Silli, G., Šmída, R., Snow, G. R., Sommers, P., Sonntag, S., Soriano, J. F., Squartini, R., Stanca, D., Stanič, S., Stasielak, J., Stassi, P., Stolpovskiy, M., Strafella, F., Streich, A., Suarez, F., Durán, M. Suarez, Sudholz, T., Suomijärvi, T., Supanitsky, A. D., Šupík, J., Swain, J., Szadkowski, Z., Taboada, A., Taborda, O. A., Theodoro, V. M., Timmermans, C., Peixoto, C. J. Todero, Tomankova, L., Tomé, B., Elipe, G. Torralba, Travnicek, P., Trini, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Galicia, J. F. Valdés, Valiño, I., Valore, L., van Aar, G., van Bodegom, P., Berg, A. M. van den, Vliet, A. van, Varela, E., Cárdenas, B. Vargas, Vázquez, R. A., Veberič, D., Ventura, C., Quispe, I. D. Vergara, Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Villaseñor, L., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Wainberg, O., Walz, D., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weindl, A., Wiedeński, M., Wiencke, L., Wilczyński, H., Wirtz, M., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Yang, L., Yushkov, A., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zepeda, A., Zimmermann, B., Ziolkowski, M., Zong, Z., & Zuccarello, F. An Indication of Anisotropy in Arrival Directions of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays through Comparison to the Flux Pattern of Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Sources. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aaa66d.
Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Albuquerque, I. F. M., Allekotte, I., Almela, A., Castillo, J. Alvarez, Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Anastasi, G. A., Anchordoqui, L., Andrada, B., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Arsene, N., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Avila, G., Badescu, A. M., Balaceanu, A., Barbato, F., Luz, R. J. Barreira, Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertaina, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Biteau, J., Blaess, S. G., Blanco, A., Blazek, J., Bleve, C., Boháčová, M., Bonifazi, C., Borodai, N., Botti, A. M., Brack, J., Brancus, I., Bretz, T., Bridgeman, A., Briechle, F. L., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, L., Cancio, A., Canfora, F., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Catalani, F., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Chavez, A. G., Chinellato, J. A., Chudoba, J., Clay, R. W., Cerutti, A. C. Cobos, Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Collica, L., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Consolati, G., Contreras, F., Cooper, M. J., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Cronin, J., D’Amico, S., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., Almeida, R. M. de, Jong, S. J. de, Mauro, G. De, de Mello Neto, J. R. T., Mitri, I. De, Oliveira, J. de, Souza, V. de, Debatin, J., Deligny, O., Castro, M. L. Díaz, Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., D’Olivo, J. C., Dorosti, Q., Anjos, R. C. dos, Dova, M. T., Dundovic, A., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Erfani, M., Escobar, C. O., Espadanal, J., Etchegoyen, A., Falcke, H., Farmer, J., Farrar, G., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Fenu, F., Fick, B., Figueira, J. M., Filipčič, A., Freire, M. M., Fujii, T., Fuster, A., Gaïor, R., García, B., Gaté, F., Gemmeke, H., Gherghel-Lascu, A., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Głas, D., Glaser, C., Golup, G., Berisso, M. Gómez, Vitale, P. F. Gómez, González, N., Gorgi, A., Grillo, A. F., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Halliday, R., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Herve, A. E., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Holt, E., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huege, T., Hulsman, J., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Johnsen, J. A., Josebachuili, M., Jurysek, J., Kääpä, A., Kambeitz, O., Kampert, K. H., Keilhauer, B., Kemmerich, N., Kemp, E., Kemp, J., Kieckhafer, R. M., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Krohm, N., Kuempel, D., Mezek, G. Kukec, Kunka, N., Awad, A. Kuotb, Lago, B. L., LaHurd, D., Lang, R. G., Lauscher, M., Legumina, R., Oliveira, M. A. Leigui de, Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Link, K., Presti, D. Lo, Lopes, L., López, R., Casado, A. López, Lorek, R., Luce, Q., Lucero, A., Malacari, M., Mallamaci, M., Mandat, D., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martinez, H., Bravo, O. Martínez, Meza, J. J. Masías, Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthiae, G., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina, C., Medina-Tanco, G., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Merenda, K. -D., Michal, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Mockler, D., Mollerach, S., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Morlino, G., Mostafá, M., Müller, A. L., Müller, G., Muller, M. A., Müller, S., Mussa, R., Naranjo, I., Nellen, L., Nguyen, P. H., Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M., Niechciol, M., Niemietz, L., Niggemann, T., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, L., Núñez, L. A., Oikonomou, F., Olinto, A., Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Paul, T., Pech, M., Pedreira, F., Pȩkala, J., Pelayo, R., Peña-Rodriguez, J., Pereira, L. A. S., Perlin, M., Perrone, L., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Phuntsok, J., Pierog, T., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Plum, M., Poh, J., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Quel, E. 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D., Šupík, J., Swain, J., Szadkowski, Z., Taboada, A., Taborda, O. A., Theodoro, V. M., Timmermans, C., Peixoto, C. J. Todero, Tomankova, L., Tomé, B., Elipe, G. Torralba, Travnicek, P., Trini, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Galicia, J. F. Valdés, Valiño, I., Valore, L., van Aar, G., van Bodegom, P., Berg, A. M. van den, Vliet, A. van, Varela, E., Cárdenas, B. Vargas, Vázquez, R. A., Veberič, D., Ventura, C., Quispe, I. D. Vergara, Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Villaseñor, L., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Wainberg, O., Walz, D., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weindl, A., Wiedeński, M., Wiencke, L., Wilczyński, H., Wirtz, M., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Yang, L., Yushkov, A., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zepeda, A., Zimmermann, B., Ziolkowski, M., Zong, Z., and Zuccarello, F. Fri . "An Indication of Anisotropy in Arrival Directions of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays through Comparison to the Flux Pattern of Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Sources". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aaa66d. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1418449.
@article{osti_1418449,
title = {An Indication of Anisotropy in Arrival Directions of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays through Comparison to the Flux Pattern of Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Sources},
author = {Aab, A. and Abreu, P. and Aglietta, M. and Albuquerque, I. F. M. and Allekotte, I. and Almela, A. and Castillo, J. Alvarez and Alvarez-Muñiz, J. and Anastasi, G. A. and Anchordoqui, L. and Andrada, B. and Andringa, S. and Aramo, C. and Arsene, N. and Asorey, H. and Assis, P. and Avila, G. and Badescu, A. M. and Balaceanu, A. and Barbato, F. and Luz, R. J. Barreira and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K. H. and Bellido, J. A. and Berat, C. and Bertaina, M. E. and Bertou, X. and Biermann, P. L. and Biteau, J. and Blaess, S. G. and Blanco, A. and Blazek, J. and Bleve, C. and Boháčová, M. and Bonifazi, C. and Borodai, N. and Botti, A. M. and Brack, J. and Brancus, I. and Bretz, T. and Bridgeman, A. and Briechle, F. L. and Buchholz, P. and Bueno, A. and Buitink, S. and Buscemi, M. and Caballero-Mora, K. S. and Caccianiga, L. and Cancio, A. and Canfora, F. and Caruso, R. and Castellina, A. and Catalani, F. and Cataldi, G. and Cazon, L. and Chavez, A. G. and Chinellato, J. A. and Chudoba, J. and Clay, R. W. and Cerutti, A. C. Cobos and Colalillo, R. and Coleman, A. and Collica, L. and Coluccia, M. R. and Conceição, R. and Consolati, G. and Contreras, F. and Cooper, M. J. and Coutu, S. and Covault, C. E. and Cronin, J. and D’Amico, S. and Daniel, B. and Dasso, S. and Daumiller, K. and Dawson, B. R. and Almeida, R. M. de and Jong, S. J. de and Mauro, G. De and de Mello Neto, J. R. T. and Mitri, I. De and Oliveira, J. de and Souza, V. de and Debatin, J. and Deligny, O. and Castro, M. L. Díaz and Diogo, F. and Dobrigkeit, C. and D’Olivo, J. C. and Dorosti, Q. and Anjos, R. C. dos and Dova, M. T. and Dundovic, A. and Ebr, J. and Engel, R. and Erdmann, M. and Erfani, M. and Escobar, C. O. and Espadanal, J. and Etchegoyen, A. and Falcke, H. and Farmer, J. and Farrar, G. and Fauth, A. C. and Fazzini, N. and Fenu, F. and Fick, B. and Figueira, J. M. and Filipčič, A. and Freire, M. M. and Fujii, T. and Fuster, A. and Gaïor, R. and García, B. and Gaté, F. and Gemmeke, H. and Gherghel-Lascu, A. and Ghia, P. L. and Giaccari, U. and Giammarchi, M. and Giller, M. and Głas, D. and Glaser, C. and Golup, G. and Berisso, M. Gómez and Vitale, P. F. Gómez and González, N. and Gorgi, A. and Grillo, A. F. and Grubb, T. D. and Guarino, F. and Guedes, G. P. and Halliday, R. and Hampel, M. R. and Hansen, P. and Harari, D. and Harrison, T. A. and Haungs, A. and Hebbeker, T. and Heck, D. and Heimann, P. and Herve, A. E. and Hill, G. C. and Hojvat, C. and Holt, E. and Homola, P. and Hörandel, J. R. and Horvath, P. and Hrabovský, M. and Huege, T. and Hulsman, J. and Insolia, A. and Isar, P. G. and Jandt, I. and Johnsen, J. A. and Josebachuili, M. and Jurysek, J. and Kääpä, A. and Kambeitz, O. and Kampert, K. H. and Keilhauer, B. and Kemmerich, N. and Kemp, E. and Kemp, J. and Kieckhafer, R. M. and Klages, H. O. and Kleifges, M. and Kleinfeller, J. and Krause, R. and Krohm, N. and Kuempel, D. and Mezek, G. Kukec and Kunka, N. and Awad, A. Kuotb and Lago, B. L. and LaHurd, D. and Lang, R. G. and Lauscher, M. and Legumina, R. and Oliveira, M. A. Leigui de and Letessier-Selvon, A. and Lhenry-Yvon, I. and Link, K. and Presti, D. Lo and Lopes, L. and López, R. and Casado, A. López and Lorek, R. and Luce, Q. and Lucero, A. and Malacari, M. and Mallamaci, M. and Mandat, D. and Mantsch, P. and Mariazzi, A. G. and Mariş, I. C. and Marsella, G. and Martello, D. and Martinez, H. and Bravo, O. Martínez and Meza, J. J. Masías and Mathes, H. J. and Mathys, S. and Matthews, J. and Matthiae, G. and Mayotte, E. and Mazur, P. O. and Medina, C. and Medina-Tanco, G. and Melo, D. and Menshikov, A. and Merenda, K. -D. and Michal, S. and Micheletti, M. I. and Middendorf, L. and Miramonti, L. and Mitrica, B. and Mockler, D. and Mollerach, S. and Montanet, F. and Morello, C. and Morlino, G. and Mostafá, M. and Müller, A. L. and Müller, G. and Muller, M. A. and Müller, S. and Mussa, R. and Naranjo, I. and Nellen, L. and Nguyen, P. H. and Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M. and Niechciol, M. and Niemietz, L. and Niggemann, T. and Nitz, D. and Nosek, D. and Novotny, V. and Nožka, L. and Núñez, L. A. and Oikonomou, F. and Olinto, A. and Palatka, M. and Pallotta, J. and Papenbreer, P. and Parente, G. and Parra, A. and Paul, T. and Pech, M. and Pedreira, F. and Pȩkala, J. and Pelayo, R. and Peña-Rodriguez, J. and Pereira, L. A. S. and Perlin, M. and Perrone, L. and Peters, C. and Petrera, S. and Phuntsok, J. and Pierog, T. and Pimenta, M. and Pirronello, V. and Platino, M. and Plum, M. and Poh, J. and Porowski, C. and Prado, R. R. and Privitera, P. and Prouza, M. and Quel, E. J. and Querchfeld, S. and Quinn, S. and Ramos-Pollan, R. and Rautenberg, J. and Ravignani, D. and Ridky, J. and Riehn, F. and Risse, M. and Ristori, P. and Rizi, V. and Rodrigues de Carvalho, W. and Rodriguez Fernandez, G. and Rodriguez Rojo, J. and Roncoroni, M. J. and Roth, M. and Roulet, E. and Rovero, A. C. and Ruehl, P. and Saffi, S. J. and Saftoiu, A. and Salamida, F. and Salazar, H. and Saleh, A. and Salina, G. and Sánchez, F. and Sanchez-Lucas, P. and Santos, E. M. and Santos, E. and Sarazin, F. and Sarmento, R. and Sarmiento-Cano, C. and Sato, R. and Schauer, M. and Scherini, V. and Schieler, H. and Schimp, M. and Schmidt, D. and Scholten, O. and Schovánek, P. and Schröder, F. G. and Schröder, S. and Schulz, A. and Schumacher, J. and Sciutto, S. J. and Segreto, A. and Shadkam, A. and Shellard, R. C. and Sigl, G. and Silli, G. and Šmída, R. and Snow, G. R. and Sommers, P. and Sonntag, S. and Soriano, J. F. and Squartini, R. and Stanca, D. and Stanič, S. and Stasielak, J. and Stassi, P. and Stolpovskiy, M. and Strafella, F. and Streich, A. and Suarez, F. and Durán, M. Suarez and Sudholz, T. and Suomijärvi, T. and Supanitsky, A. D. and Šupík, J. and Swain, J. and Szadkowski, Z. and Taboada, A. and Taborda, O. A. and Theodoro, V. M. and Timmermans, C. and Peixoto, C. J. Todero and Tomankova, L. and Tomé, B. and Elipe, G. Torralba and Travnicek, P. and Trini, M. and Ulrich, R. and Unger, M. and Urban, M. and Galicia, J. F. Valdés and Valiño, I. and Valore, L. and van Aar, G. and van Bodegom, P. and Berg, A. M. van den and Vliet, A. van and Varela, E. and Cárdenas, B. Vargas and Vázquez, R. A. and Veberič, D. and Ventura, C. and Quispe, I. D. Vergara and Verzi, V. and Vicha, J. and Villaseñor, L. and Vorobiov, S. and Wahlberg, H. and Wainberg, O. and Walz, D. and Watson, A. A. and Weber, M. and Weindl, A. and Wiedeński, M. and Wiencke, L. and Wilczyński, H. and Wirtz, M. and Wittkowski, D. and Wundheiler, B. and Yang, L. and Yushkov, A. and Zas, E. and Zavrtanik, D. and Zavrtanik, M. and Zepeda, A. and Zimmermann, B. and Ziolkowski, M. and Zong, Z. and Zuccarello, F.},
abstractNote = {A new analysis of the dataset from the Pierre Auger Observatory provides evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays on an intermediate angular scale, which is indicative of excess arrivals from strong, nearby sources. The data consist of 5514 events above 20 EeV with zenith angles up to 80 deg recorded before 2017 April 30. Sky models have been created for two distinct populations of extragalactic gamma-ray emitters: active galactic nuclei from the second catalog of hard Fermi-LAT sources (2FHL) and starburst galaxies from a sample that was examined with Fermi-LAT. Flux-limited samples, which include all types of galaxies from the Swift-BAT and 2MASS surveys, have been investigated for comparison. The sky model of cosmic-ray density constructed using each catalog has two free parameters, the fraction of events correlating with astrophysical objects and an angular scale characterizing the clustering of cosmic rays around extragalactic sources. A maximum-likelihood ratio test is used to evaluate the best values of these parameters and to quantify the strength of each model by contrast with isotropy. It is found that the starburst model fits the data better than the hypothesis of isotropy with a statistical significance of 4.0 sigma, the highest value of the test statistic being for energies above 39 EeV. The three alternative models are favored against isotropy with 2.7-3.2 sigma significance. The origin of the indicated deviation from isotropy is examined and prospects for more sensitive future studies are discussed.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/aaa66d},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 853,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

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Figure 1 Figure 1: TS scan over the threshold energy for SBGs and AGNs (Left) and Swift-BAT and 2MRS sources (Right), including attenuation (light-dashed lines) or not (darker-solid lines).

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