skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Climate Model Simulations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling on the U.S. Southern Great Plains

Abstract

Several independent measurements of warm-season soil moisture and surface atmospheric variables recorded at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) research facility are used to estimate the terrestrial component of land-atmosphere coupling (LAC) strength and its regional uncertainty. The observations reveal substantial variation in coupling strength, as estimated from three soil moisture measurements at a single site, as well as across six other sites having varied soil and land cover types. The observational estimates then serve as references for evaluating SGP terrestrial coupling strength in the Community Atmospheric Model coupled to the Community Land Model. These coupled model components are operated in both a free-running mode and in a controlled configuration, where the atmospheric and land states are reinitialized daily, so that they do not drift very far from observations. Although the controlled simulation deviates less from the observed surface climate than its free-running counterpart, the terrestrial LAC in both configurations is much stronger and displays less spatial variability than the SGP observational estimates. Preliminary investigation of vegetation leaf area index (LAI) substituted for soil moisture suggests that the overly strong coupling between model soil moisture and surface atmospheric variables is associated with too much evaporation from bare ground and toomore » little from the vegetation cover. Lastly, these results imply that model surface characteristics such as LAI, as well as the physical parameterizations involved in the coupling of the land and atmospheric components, are likely to be important sources of the problematical LAC behaviors.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Hydrological Sciences Lab., Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  4. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1418345
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1408249; OSTI ID: 1476573
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; AC52-07NA27344; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 21; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; climate model simulation; climate simulation evaluation; land-atmosphere coupling

Citation Formats

Phillips, Thomas J., Klein, Stephen A., Ma, Hsi -Yen, Tang, Qi, Xie, Shaocheng, Williams, Ian N., Santanello, Joseph A., Cook, David R., and Torn, Margaret S. Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Climate Model Simulations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling on the U.S. Southern Great Plains. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JD027141.
Phillips, Thomas J., Klein, Stephen A., Ma, Hsi -Yen, Tang, Qi, Xie, Shaocheng, Williams, Ian N., Santanello, Joseph A., Cook, David R., & Torn, Margaret S. Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Climate Model Simulations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling on the U.S. Southern Great Plains. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027141.
Phillips, Thomas J., Klein, Stephen A., Ma, Hsi -Yen, Tang, Qi, Xie, Shaocheng, Williams, Ian N., Santanello, Joseph A., Cook, David R., and Torn, Margaret S. Fri . "Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Climate Model Simulations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling on the U.S. Southern Great Plains". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027141. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1418345.
@article{osti_1418345,
title = {Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Climate Model Simulations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling on the U.S. Southern Great Plains},
author = {Phillips, Thomas J. and Klein, Stephen A. and Ma, Hsi -Yen and Tang, Qi and Xie, Shaocheng and Williams, Ian N. and Santanello, Joseph A. and Cook, David R. and Torn, Margaret S.},
abstractNote = {Several independent measurements of warm-season soil moisture and surface atmospheric variables recorded at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) research facility are used to estimate the terrestrial component of land-atmosphere coupling (LAC) strength and its regional uncertainty. The observations reveal substantial variation in coupling strength, as estimated from three soil moisture measurements at a single site, as well as across six other sites having varied soil and land cover types. The observational estimates then serve as references for evaluating SGP terrestrial coupling strength in the Community Atmospheric Model coupled to the Community Land Model. These coupled model components are operated in both a free-running mode and in a controlled configuration, where the atmospheric and land states are reinitialized daily, so that they do not drift very far from observations. Although the controlled simulation deviates less from the observed surface climate than its free-running counterpart, the terrestrial LAC in both configurations is much stronger and displays less spatial variability than the SGP observational estimates. Preliminary investigation of vegetation leaf area index (LAI) substituted for soil moisture suggests that the overly strong coupling between model soil moisture and surface atmospheric variables is associated with too much evaporation from bare ground and too little from the vegetation cover. Lastly, these results imply that model surface characteristics such as LAI, as well as the physical parameterizations involved in the coupling of the land and atmospheric components, are likely to be important sources of the problematical LAC behaviors.},
doi = {10.1002/2017JD027141},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = 21,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Investigating soil moisture–climate interactions in a changing climate: A review
journal, May 2010


Probability of afternoon precipitation in eastern United States and Mexico enhanced by high evaporation
journal, June 2011

  • Findell, Kirsten L.; Gentine, Pierre; Lintner, Benjamin R.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 4, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo1174

Does Afternoon Precipitation Occur Preferentially over Dry or Wet Soils in Oklahoma?
journal, April 2015

  • Ford, Trent W.; Rapp, Anita D.; Quiring, Steven M.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 16, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0005.1

Scale Dependence of Land–Atmosphere Interactions in Wet and Dry Regions as Simulated with NU-WRF over the Southwestern and South-Central United States
journal, August 2016

  • Zhou, Yaping; Wu, Di; K. -M. Lau, William
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 17, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0024.1

A submonthly database for detecting changes in vegetation-atmosphere coupling: THE VEGETATION-ATMOSPHERE COUPLING INDEX
journal, November 2015

  • Zscheischler, Jakob; Orth, René; Seneviratne, Sonia I.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066563

The Observation Record Length Necessary to Generate Robust Soil Moisture Percentiles
journal, October 2016

  • Ford, Trent W.; Wang, Qing; Quiring, Steven M.
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 55, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0143.1

Interannual Variability of Land–Atmosphere Coupling Strength
journal, October 2013


Influence of MODIS-Derived Dynamic Vegetation on VIC-Simulated Soil Moisture in Oklahoma
journal, December 2013

  • Ford, Trent W.; Quiring, Steven M.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 14, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-13-037.1

Regions of Strong Coupling Between Soil Moisture and Precipitation
journal, August 2004


Surface and Atmospheric Controls on the Onset of Moist Convection over Land
journal, October 2013

  • Gentine, Pierre; Holtslag, Albert A. M.; D'Andrea, Fabio
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 14, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-0137.1

Utility of Satellite Remote Sensing for Land–Atmosphere Coupling and Drought Metrics
journal, March 2017

  • Roundy, Joshua K.; Santanello, Joseph A.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 18, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0171.1

The Heated Condensation Framework. Part II: Climatological Behavior of Convective Initiation and Land–Atmosphere Coupling over the Conterminous United States
journal, October 2015

  • Tawfik, Ahmed B.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Santanello, Joseph A.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 16, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0118.1

Soil moisture-temperature coupling: A multiscale observational analysis: SOIL MOISTURE-TEMPERATURE COUPLING
journal, November 2012

  • Miralles, D. G.; van den Berg, M. J.; Teuling, A. J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053703

GLACE: The Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment. Part I: Overview
journal, August 2006

  • Koster, Randal D.; Sud, Y. C.; Guo, Zhichang
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 7, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM510.1

Global simulations of ice nucleation and ice supersaturation with an improved cloud scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model
journal, January 2010

  • Gettelman, A.; Liu, X.; Ghan, S. J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue D18
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JD013797

Understanding Hydrometeorology Using Global Models
journal, November 2004


A Modeling and Observational Framework for Diagnosing Local Land–Atmosphere Coupling on Diurnal Time Scales
journal, June 2009

  • Santanello, Joseph A.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 10, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009JHM1066.1

The Second Phase of the Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment: Soil Moisture Contributions to Subseasonal Forecast Skill
journal, October 2011

  • Koster, R. D.; Mahanama, S. P. P.; Yamada, T. J.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 12, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011JHM1365.1

On the Nature of Soil Moisture in Land Surface Models
journal, August 2009

  • Koster, Randal D.; Guo, Zhichang; Yang, Rongqian
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 22, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009JCLI2832.1

Evaluating Land–Atmosphere Coupling Using a Resistance Pathway Framework
journal, October 2016

  • Hirsch, A. L.; Pitman, A. J.; Haverd, V.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 17, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-15-0204.1

An Empirical Investigation of Convective Planetary Boundary Layer Evolution and Its Relationship with the Land Surface
journal, June 2005

  • Santanello, Joseph A.; Friedl, Mark A.; Kustas, William P.
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 44, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAM2240.1

The Impact of Convection on ENSO: From a Delayed Oscillator to a Series of Events
journal, November 2008

  • Neale, Richard B.; Richter, Jadwiga H.; Jochum, Markus
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 21, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2244.1

The SMOS Mission: New Tool for Monitoring Key Elements ofthe Global Water Cycle
journal, May 2010

  • Kerr, Yann H.; Waldteufel, Philippe; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre
  • Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 98, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2010.2043032

Vegetation controls on surface heat flux partitioning, and land-atmosphere coupling: VEGETATION AND LAND-ATMOSPHERE COUPLING
journal, November 2015

  • Williams, Ian N.; Torn, Margaret S.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066305

The terrestrial segment of soil moisture-climate coupling: SOIL MOISTURE-CLIMATE COUPLING
journal, August 2011


CLOUDS AND MORE: ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data: A New Data Product for Climate Studies
journal, January 2010

  • Xie, Shaocheng; McCoy, Renata B.; Klein, Stephen A.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 91, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009BAMS2891.1

Summer U.S. Surface Air Temperature Variability: Controlling Factors and AMIP Simulation Biases
journal, July 2016


Diagnosing the Nature of Land–Atmosphere Coupling: A Case Study of Dry/Wet Extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains
journal, February 2013

  • Santanello, Joseph A.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kennedy, Aaron
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 14, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-023.1

Toward understanding the large-scale land-atmosphere coupling in the models: Roles of different processes: UNDERSTANDING LAND-ATMOSPHERE COUPLING
journal, October 2010

  • Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010GL044769

Land–atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe
journal, September 2006

  • Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Lüthi, Daniel; Litschi, Michael
  • Nature, Vol. 443, Issue 7108
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature05095

The Heated Condensation Framework. Part I: Description and Southern Great Plains Case Study
journal, October 2015

  • Tawfik, Ahmed B.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Santanello, Joseph A.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 16, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0117.1

Observed Land–Atmosphere Coupling from Satellite Remote Sensing and Reanalysis
journal, December 2011

  • Ferguson, Craig R.; Wood, Eric F.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 12, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011JHM1380.1

GLACE: The Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment. Part II: Analysis
journal, August 2006

  • Guo, Zhichang; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Koster, Randal D.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 7, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM511.1

Statistical identification of global hot spots in soil moisture feedbacks among IPCC AR4 models
journal, January 2008


Land-Surface-Atmosphere Coupling in Observations and Models: LAND-SURFACE-ATMOSPHERE COUPLING
journal, March 2009


Afternoon rain more likely over drier soils
journal, September 2012

  • Taylor, Christopher M.; de Jeu, Richard A. M.; Guichard, Françoise
  • Nature, Vol. 489, Issue 7416
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature11377

The role of land cover change in modulating the soil moisture-temperature land-atmosphere coupling strength over Australia
journal, August 2014

  • Hirsch, A. L.; Pitman, A. J.; Kala, J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061179

Dissecting soil moisture-precipitation coupling: SOIL MOISTURE-PRECIPITATION COUOPLING
journal, October 2012

  • Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053038

Reconciling spatial and temporal soil moisture effects on afternoon rainfall
journal, March 2015

  • Guillod, Benoit P.; Orlowsky, Boris; Miralles, Diego G.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7443

The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission
journal, May 2010


Spatiotemporal Variations in Soil Water: First Results from the ARM SGP CART Network
journal, February 2003


Relationships between Land Surface and Near-Surface Atmospheric Variables in the NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis
journal, December 2007

  • Luo, Yan; Berbery, Ernesto H.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 8, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/2007JHM844.1

Weak Land–Atmosphere Coupling Strength in HadAM3: The Role of Soil Moisture Variability
journal, October 2005

  • Lawrence, David M.; Slingo, Julia M.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 6, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM445.1

Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: description and evaluation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5
journal, January 2012

  • Liu, X.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 5, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-5-709-2012

Land–Atmosphere Coupling at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Field Site and Its Role in Anomalous Afternoon Peak Precipitation
journal, February 2016

  • Song, Hyo-Jong; Ferguson, Craig R.; Roundy, Joshua K.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 17, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-15-0045.1

Data Length Requirements for Observational Estimates of Land–Atmosphere Coupling Strength
journal, August 2015

  • Findell, Kirsten L.; Gentine, Pierre; Lintner, Benjamin R.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 16, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0131.1

Contribution of land-atmosphere coupling to recent European summer heat waves
journal, January 2007

  • Fischer, E. M.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Lüthi, D.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GL029068

Comparing the Degree of Land–Atmosphere Interaction in Four Atmospheric General Circulation Models
journal, June 2002


Diagnosing atmosphere–land feedbacks in CMIP5 climate models
journal, October 2012


The Diurnal Behavior of Evaporative Fraction in the Soil–Vegetation–Atmospheric Boundary Layer Continuum
journal, December 2011

  • Gentine, Pierre; Entekhabi, Dara; Polcher, Jan
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 12, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011JHM1261.1

Great Plains Hydroclimate Variability: The View from North American Regional Reanalysis
journal, June 2006

  • Ruiz-Barradas, Alfredo; Nigam, Sumant
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3768.1

The North American Soil Moisture Database: Development and Applications
journal, August 2016

  • Quiring, Steven M.; Ford, Trent W.; Wang, Jessica K.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 97, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00263.1

Confronting Weather and Climate Models with Observational Data from Soil Moisture Networks over the United States
journal, April 2016

  • Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wu, Jiexia; Norton, Holly E.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 17, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-15-0196.1

Investigation of Large-Scale Atmospheric Moisture Budget and Land Surface Interactions over U.S. Southern Great Plains including for CLASIC (June 2007)
journal, December 2012

  • Lamb, Peter J.; Portis, Diane H.; Zangvil, Abraham
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 13, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-01.1

Contribution of land surface initialization to subseasonal forecast skill: First results from a multi-model experiment: GLACE-2-SOIL MOISTURE AND FORECASTING
journal, January 2010

  • Koster, R. D.; Mahanama, S. P. P.; Yamada, T. J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009GL041677

Soil moisture–precipitation coupling: observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet and underlying physical mechanisms
journal, January 2015

  • Ford, T. W.; Rapp, A. D.; Quiring, S. M.
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 19, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.5194/hess-19-3617-2015

Integrating Cloud Processes in the Community Atmosphere Model, Version 5
journal, September 2014

  • Park, Sungsu; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Rasch, Philip J.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 27, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00087.1

Improving the Numerical Solution of Soil Moisture–Based Richards Equation for Land Models with a Deep or Shallow Water Table
journal, February 2009


Convective Planetary Boundary Layer Interactions with the Land Surface at Diurnal Time Scales: Diagnostics and Feedbacks
journal, October 2007

  • Santanello, Joseph A.; Friedl, Mark A.; Ek, Michael B.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 8, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM614.1

Impact of soil moisture‐climate feedbacks on CMIP5 projections: First results from the GLACE‐CMIP5 experiment
journal, October 2013

  • Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Wilhelm, Micah; Stanelle, Tanja
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50956

Effects of explicit convection on global land-atmosphere coupling in the superparameterized CAM: EXPLICIT CONVECTION ON GLOBAL LAND-ATMOSPHERE COUPLING
journal, August 2016

  • Sun, Jian; Pritchard, Michael S.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016MS000689

New analysis reveals representativeness of the AmeriFlux network
journal, January 2003

  • Hargrove, William W.; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Law, Beverly E.
  • Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol. 84, Issue 48
  • DOI: 10.1029/2003EO480001

Intercomparison of Bulk Aerodynamic Algorithms for the Computation of Sea Surface Fluxes Using TOGA COARE and TAO Data
journal, October 1998


A New Moist Turbulence Parameterization in the Community Atmosphere Model
journal, June 2009


Diagnosing the Strength of Land–Atmosphere Coupling at Subseasonal to Seasonal Time Scales in Asia
journal, February 2014


Modeling land-climate coupling in Europe: Impact of land surface representation on climate variability and extremes: LAND-CLIMATE COUPLING IN EUROPE
journal, October 2012

  • Lorenz, R.; Davin, E. L.; Seneviratne, S. I.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 117, Issue D20
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JD017755

Revisiting GLACE: Understanding the Role of the Land Surface in Land–Atmosphere Coupling
journal, December 2012


Evidence for Enhanced Land–Atmosphere Feedback in a Warming Climate
journal, June 2012

  • Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Cash, Benjamin A.; Kinter, James L.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 13, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-11-0104.1

Empirical evidence of contrasting soil moisture-precipitation feedbacks across the United States
journal, May 2016


Interannual Coupling between Summertime Surface Temperature and Precipitation over Land: Processes and Implications for Climate Change
journal, February 2015


An Overview of the Results of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP I)
journal, January 1999


Land-surface controls on afternoon precipitation diagnosed from observational data: uncertainties and confounding factors
journal, January 2014

  • Guillod, B. P.; Orlowsky, B.; Miralles, D.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 14, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-14-8343-2014

Evaluating Parameterizations in General Circulation Models: Climate Simulation Meets Weather Prediction
journal, December 2004

  • Phillips, Thomas J.; Potter, Gerald L.; Williamson, David L.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 85, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-85-12-1903

The International Soil Moisture Network: a data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements
journal, January 2011

  • Dorigo, W. A.; Wagner, W.; Hohensinn, R.
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 15, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.5194/hess-15-1675-2011

Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models
journal, January 2008

  • Iacono, Michael J.; Delamere, Jennifer S.; Mlawer, Eli J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue D13
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JD009944

Diagnosing the Sensitivity of Local Land–Atmosphere Coupling via the Soil Moisture–Boundary Layer Interaction
journal, October 2011

  • Santanello, Joseph A.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 12, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-10-05014.1

Quantifying the Land–Atmosphere Coupling Behavior in Modern Reanalysis Products over the U.S. Southern Great Plains
journal, July 2015

  • Santanello, Joseph A.; Roundy, Joshua; Dirmeyer, Paul A.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 28, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00680.1

Dreary state of precipitation in global models: MODEL AND OBSERVED PRECIPITATION
journal, December 2010

  • Stephens, Graeme L.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Forbes, Richard
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 115, Issue D24
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JD014532

Evolving Land–Atmosphere Interactions over North America from CMIP5 Simulations
journal, October 2013


Do Global Models Properly Represent the Feedback between Land and Atmosphere?
journal, December 2006

  • Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Koster, Randal D.; Guo, Zhichang
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 7, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM532.1

Evaluating the strength of the land–atmosphere moisture feedback in Earth system models using satellite observations
journal, January 2016

  • Levine, Paul A.; Randerson, James T.; Swenson, Sean C.
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 20, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.5194/hess-20-4837-2016

A Global Intercomparison of Modeled and Observed Land–Atmosphere Coupling
journal, June 2012

  • Ferguson, Craig R.; Wood, Eric F.; Vinukollu, Raghuveer K.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 13, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-11-0119.1

The Arm Climate Research Facility: A Review of Structure and Capabilities
journal, March 2013

  • Mather, James H.; Voyles, Jimmy W.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 94, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00218.1

Comparison of Land–Precipitation Coupling Strength Using Observations and Models
journal, August 2010

  • Zeng, Xubin; Barlage, Mike; Castro, Chris
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 11, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JHM1226.1

An improved hindcast approach for evaluation and diagnosis of physical processes in global climate models: AN IMPROVED HINDCAST APPROACH
journal, November 2015

  • Ma, H. -Y.; Chuang, C. C.; Klein, S. A.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 7, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015MS000490

The Soil Moisture–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX): Background, Hydrometeorological Conditions, and Preliminary Findings
journal, December 2005

  • Kustas, William P.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Prueger, John H.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 6, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM456.1

Using regime analysis to identify the contribution of clouds to surface temperature errors in weather and climate models: Cloud-Regime Analysis and Surface Temperature Errors
journal, September 2015

  • Van Weverberg, Kwinten; Morcrette, Cyril J.; Ma, Hsi-Yen
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 141, Issue 693
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.2603

Intraseasonal versus Interannual Measures of Land–Atmosphere Coupling Strength in a Global Climate Model: GLACE-1 versus GLACE-CMIP5 Experiments in ACCESS1.3b
journal, October 2015

  • Lorenz, Ruth; Pitman, Andrew J.; Hirsch, Annette L.
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 16, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0206.1

Role of clouds and land-atmosphere coupling in midlatitude continental summer warm biases and climate change amplification in CMIP5 simulations
journal, September 2014

  • Cheruy, F.; Dufresne, J. L.; Hourdin, F.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061145

How Much Do Different Land Models Matter for Climate Simulation? Part II: A Decomposed View of the Land–Atmosphere Coupling Strength
journal, June 2010

  • Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Guo, Zhichang
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 23, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JCLI3178.1

An Evaluation of the Strength of Land–Atmosphere Coupling
journal, August 2001