skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Solar plus: Optimization of distributed solar PV through battery storage and dispatchable load in residential buildings

Abstract

As utility electricity rates evolve, pairing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems with battery storage has potential to ensure the value proposition of residential solar by mitigating economic uncertainty. In addition to batteries, load control technologies can reshape customer load profiles to optimize PV system use. The combination of PV, energy storage, and load control provides an integrated approach to PV deployment, which we call 'solar plus'. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Energy Optimization (REopt) model is utilized to evaluate cost-optimal technology selection, sizing, and dispatch in residential buildings under a variety of rate structures and locations. The REopt model is extended to include a controllable or 'smart' domestic hot water heater model and smart air conditioner model. We find that the solar plus approach improves end user economics across a variety of rate structures - especially those that are challenging for PV - including lower grid export rates, non-coincident time-of-use structures, and demand charges.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Renewable Power Office. Solar Energy Technologies Office
OSTI Identifier:
1417734
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1548816
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-6A20-70778
Journal ID: ISSN 0306-2619
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 213; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0306-2619
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; solar; storage; load control; optimization; residential buildings

Citation Formats

O'Shaughnessy, Eric, Cutler, Dylan, Ardani, Kristen, and Margolis, Robert. Solar plus: Optimization of distributed solar PV through battery storage and dispatchable load in residential buildings. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.12.118.
O'Shaughnessy, Eric, Cutler, Dylan, Ardani, Kristen, & Margolis, Robert. Solar plus: Optimization of distributed solar PV through battery storage and dispatchable load in residential buildings. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.12.118
O'Shaughnessy, Eric, Cutler, Dylan, Ardani, Kristen, and Margolis, Robert. Thu . "Solar plus: Optimization of distributed solar PV through battery storage and dispatchable load in residential buildings". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.12.118. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1417734.
@article{osti_1417734,
title = {Solar plus: Optimization of distributed solar PV through battery storage and dispatchable load in residential buildings},
author = {O'Shaughnessy, Eric and Cutler, Dylan and Ardani, Kristen and Margolis, Robert},
abstractNote = {As utility electricity rates evolve, pairing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems with battery storage has potential to ensure the value proposition of residential solar by mitigating economic uncertainty. In addition to batteries, load control technologies can reshape customer load profiles to optimize PV system use. The combination of PV, energy storage, and load control provides an integrated approach to PV deployment, which we call 'solar plus'. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Energy Optimization (REopt) model is utilized to evaluate cost-optimal technology selection, sizing, and dispatch in residential buildings under a variety of rate structures and locations. The REopt model is extended to include a controllable or 'smart' domestic hot water heater model and smart air conditioner model. We find that the solar plus approach improves end user economics across a variety of rate structures - especially those that are challenging for PV - including lower grid export rates, non-coincident time-of-use structures, and demand charges.},
doi = {10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.12.118},
journal = {Applied Energy},
number = C,
volume = 213,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 43 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Performance analysis of photovoltaic systems: A review
journal, October 2009

  • Joshi, Anand S.; Dincer, Ibrahim; Reddy, Bale V.
  • Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 13, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2009.01.009

An analysis of feed-in tariff remuneration models: Implications for renewable energy investment
journal, February 2010


The economic viability of battery storage for residential solar photovoltaic systems – A review and a simulation model
journal, November 2014

  • Hoppmann, Joern; Volland, Jonas; Schmidt, Tobias S.
  • Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 39
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.068

�Prosumage� and the British Electricity Market
journal, January 2017


Photovoltaic self-sufficiency of Belgian households using lithium-ion batteries, and its impact on the grid
journal, June 2017


Distributed energy storage system scheduling considering tariff structure, energy arbitrage and solar PV penetration
journal, November 2017


Management and Control of Domestic Smart Grid Technology
journal, September 2010

  • Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, Maurice G. C.
  • IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 1, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2010.2055904

PV self-consumption optimization with storage and Active DSM for the residential sector
journal, September 2011


Analysis and solution for renewable energy load matching for a single-family house
journal, October 2013


Improving photovoltaics grid integration through short time forecasting and self-consumption
journal, July 2014


Optimal and rule-based control strategies for energy flexibility in buildings with PV
journal, January 2016


Quantifying self-consumption of on-site photovoltaic power generation in households with electric vehicle home charging
journal, November 2013


Quantifying load flexibility of electric vehicles for renewable energy integration
journal, August 2015


Options for improving the load matching capability of distributed photovoltaics: Methodology and application to high-latitude data
journal, November 2009


Model-based optimization of distributed and renewable energy systems in buildings
journal, May 2016


Comparing demand response and battery storage to optimize self-consumption in PV systems
journal, October 2016


Impact of PV and variable prices on optimal system sizing for heat pumps and thermal storage
journal, September 2016


A comparison of the effects of energy management using heat pump water heaters and batteries in photovoltaic -installed houses
journal, September 2017


Optimal Technology Selection and Operation of Commercial-Building Microgrids
journal, August 2008

  • Marnay, C.; Venkataramanan, G.; Stadler, M.
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 23, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TPWRS.2008.922654

Resource and revenue potential of California residential load participation in ancillary services
journal, May 2015


Rapidly falling costs of battery packs for electric vehicles
journal, March 2015


Are batteries the optimum PV-coupled energy storage for dwellings? Techno-economic comparison with hot water tanks in the UK
journal, March 2016


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The Research on Bus Voltage Stabilization Control of Off-Grid Photovoltaic DC Microgrid under Impact Load
    journal, June 2019

    • Zhang, Yu; Lu, Ziguang; Lu, Quan
    • Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Vol. 2019
    • DOI: 10.1155/2019/8913956

    The emergence of cost effective battery storage
    journal, May 2019


    An Emissions Arbitrage Algorithm to Improve the Environmental Performance of Domestic PV-Battery Systems
    journal, February 2019

    • Sun, Susan; Crossland, Andrew; Chipperfield, Andrew
    • Energies, Vol. 12, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.3390/en12030560

    Thermodynamic analysis of a hybrid energy system using geothermal and solar energy sources with thermal storage in a residential building
    journal, December 2019

    • Seyam, Shaimaa; Dincer, Ibrahim; Agelin‐Chaab, Martin
    • Energy Storage, Vol. 2, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1002/est2.103

    A Hybrid PV-Battery System for ON-Grid and OFF-Grid Applications—Controller-In-Loop Simulation Validation
    journal, February 2020

    • Subramaniam, Umashankar; Vavilapalli, Sridhar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar
    • Energies, Vol. 13, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.3390/en13030755

    Optimal energy management for the residential MES
    journal, May 2019

    • Wu, Xiaorui; Li, Yong; Tan, Yi
    • IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, Vol. 13, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2018.6472