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Title: Radiation damage free ghost diffraction with atomic resolution

The x-ray free electron lasers can enable diffractive structural determination of protein nanocrystals and single molecules that are too small and radiation-sensitive for conventional x-ray diffraction. However the electronic form factor may be modified during the ultrashort x-ray pulse due to photoionization and electron cascade caused by the intense x-ray pulse. For general x-ray imaging techniques, the minimization of the effects of radiation damage is of major concern to ensure reliable reconstruction of molecular structure. Here in this paper, we show that radiation damage free diffraction can be achieved with atomic spatial resolution by using x-ray parametric down-conversion and ghost diffraction with entangled photons of x-ray and optical frequencies. We show that the formation of the diffraction patterns satisfies a condition analogous to the Bragg equation, with a resolution that can be as fine as the crystal lattice length scale of several Ångstrom. Since the samples are illuminated by low energy optical photons, they can be free of radiation damage.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [3] ;  [4]
  1. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Center for Free-Electron Laser Science; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Max Planck Inst. for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg (Germany)
  2. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Center for Free-Electron Laser Science; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics and Inst. of Plasma Physics
  3. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Center for Free-Electron Laser Science; Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Physics
  4. Univ. of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; LB15013; LM2015083
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Physics. B, Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 51; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0953-4075
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; Czech Ministry of Education
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
OSTI Identifier:
1417627