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Title: Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling

Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical for many advanced technologies and are faced with potential supply disruptions. Recycling of permanent magnets (PMs) can be good sources for REEs which can help minimize global dependence on freshly mined REEs, but PMs are rarely recycled. Recycling of PMs has been discussed with respect to improving REEs resource sustainability. Some challenges to be addressed in order to establish industrially deployable technologies for PMs recycling have also been discussed, including profitability, energy efficiency and environmental impacts. Key considerations for promoting circular economy via PMs recycling is proposed with the focus on deciding the target points in the supply chain at which the recycled products will be inserted. Important technical considerations for recycling different forms of waste PMs, including swarfs, slags, shredded and intact hard disk drives magnets, have been presented. Lastly, the aspects of circular economy considered include reusing magnets, remanufacturing magnets and recovering of REEs from waste PMs.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1]
  1. Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
IS-J-9510
Journal ID: ISSN 1047-4838; PII: 2698; TRN: US1801043
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11358; Critical Materials Institute
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
JOM. Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 70; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1047-4838
Publisher:
Springer
Research Org:
Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
OSTI Identifier:
1417362

Nlebedim, I. C., and King, A. H.. Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1007/s11837-017-2698-7.
Nlebedim, I. C., & King, A. H.. Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling. United States. doi:10.1007/s11837-017-2698-7.
Nlebedim, I. C., and King, A. H.. 2017. "Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling". United States. doi:10.1007/s11837-017-2698-7.
@article{osti_1417362,
title = {Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling},
author = {Nlebedim, I. C. and King, A. H.},
abstractNote = {Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical for many advanced technologies and are faced with potential supply disruptions. Recycling of permanent magnets (PMs) can be good sources for REEs which can help minimize global dependence on freshly mined REEs, but PMs are rarely recycled. Recycling of PMs has been discussed with respect to improving REEs resource sustainability. Some challenges to be addressed in order to establish industrially deployable technologies for PMs recycling have also been discussed, including profitability, energy efficiency and environmental impacts. Key considerations for promoting circular economy via PMs recycling is proposed with the focus on deciding the target points in the supply chain at which the recycled products will be inserted. Important technical considerations for recycling different forms of waste PMs, including swarfs, slags, shredded and intact hard disk drives magnets, have been presented. Lastly, the aspects of circular economy considered include reusing magnets, remanufacturing magnets and recovering of REEs from waste PMs.},
doi = {10.1007/s11837-017-2698-7},
journal = {JOM. Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society},
number = 2,
volume = 70,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}