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Title: Contrasting behavior of covalent and molecular carbon allotropes exposed to extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray free-electron laser radiation

Abstract

All carbon materials, e.g., amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings and C 60 fullerene thin films, play an important role in short-wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) research motivated by FEL optics development and prospective nanotechnology applications. We investigate responses of a-C and C 60 layers to the extreme ultraviolet (SPring-8 Compact SASE Source in Japan) and soft x-ray (free-electron laser in Hamburg) free-electron laser radiation by Raman spectroscopy, differential interference contrast, and atomic force microscopy. A remarkable difference in the behavior of covalent (a-C) and molecular ( C 60 ) carbonaceous solids is demonstrated under these irradiation conditions. Low thresholds for ablation of a fullerene crystal (estimated to be around 0.15 eV/atom for C 60 vs 0.9 eV/atom for a-C in terms of the absorbed dose) are caused by a low cohesive energy of fullerene crystals. An efficient mechanism of the removal of intact C 60 molecules from the irradiated crystal due to Coulomb repulsion of fullerene-cage cation radicals formed by the ionizing radiation is revealed by a detailed modeling.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [2];  [1];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [14];  [6]
  1. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics; Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)
  2. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics
  3. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics; Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)
  4. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Nuclear Physics Inst.
  5. Univ. of Bordeaux, Talence (France). CELIA Lab.
  6. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics, Inst. of Plasma Physics
  7. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Center for Free Electron Laser Science; Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Nuclear Physics
  8. RIKEN, Hyogo (Japan). Harima Inst.
  9. Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Physics
  10. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  11. European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL), Schenefeld (Germany)
  12. Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), (Germany)
  13. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Plasma Physics
  14. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1417299
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 14-29772S; LM2015083; CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001552; LG15013
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 96; Journal Issue: 21; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9950
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Toufarová, M., Hájková, V., Chalupský, J., Burian, T., Vacík, J., Vorlíček, V., Vyšín, L., Gaudin, J., Medvedev, N., Ziaja, B., Nagasono, M., Yabashi, M., Sobierajski, R., Krzywinski, J., Sinn, H., Störmer, M., Koláček, K., Tiedtke, K., Toleikis, S., and Juha, L. Contrasting behavior of covalent and molecular carbon allotropes exposed to extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray free-electron laser radiation. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/physrevb.96.214101.
Toufarová, M., Hájková, V., Chalupský, J., Burian, T., Vacík, J., Vorlíček, V., Vyšín, L., Gaudin, J., Medvedev, N., Ziaja, B., Nagasono, M., Yabashi, M., Sobierajski, R., Krzywinski, J., Sinn, H., Störmer, M., Koláček, K., Tiedtke, K., Toleikis, S., & Juha, L. Contrasting behavior of covalent and molecular carbon allotropes exposed to extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray free-electron laser radiation. United States. doi:10.1103/physrevb.96.214101.
Toufarová, M., Hájková, V., Chalupský, J., Burian, T., Vacík, J., Vorlíček, V., Vyšín, L., Gaudin, J., Medvedev, N., Ziaja, B., Nagasono, M., Yabashi, M., Sobierajski, R., Krzywinski, J., Sinn, H., Störmer, M., Koláček, K., Tiedtke, K., Toleikis, S., and Juha, L. Mon . "Contrasting behavior of covalent and molecular carbon allotropes exposed to extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray free-electron laser radiation". United States. doi:10.1103/physrevb.96.214101. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1417299.
@article{osti_1417299,
title = {Contrasting behavior of covalent and molecular carbon allotropes exposed to extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray free-electron laser radiation},
author = {Toufarová, M. and Hájková, V. and Chalupský, J. and Burian, T. and Vacík, J. and Vorlíček, V. and Vyšín, L. and Gaudin, J. and Medvedev, N. and Ziaja, B. and Nagasono, M. and Yabashi, M. and Sobierajski, R. and Krzywinski, J. and Sinn, H. and Störmer, M. and Koláček, K. and Tiedtke, K. and Toleikis, S. and Juha, L.},
abstractNote = {All carbon materials, e.g., amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings and C 60 fullerene thin films, play an important role in short-wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) research motivated by FEL optics development and prospective nanotechnology applications. We investigate responses of a-C and C 60 layers to the extreme ultraviolet (SPring-8 Compact SASE Source in Japan) and soft x-ray (free-electron laser in Hamburg) free-electron laser radiation by Raman spectroscopy, differential interference contrast, and atomic force microscopy. A remarkable difference in the behavior of covalent (a-C) and molecular ( C 60 ) carbonaceous solids is demonstrated under these irradiation conditions. Low thresholds for ablation of a fullerene crystal (estimated to be around 0.15 eV/atom for C 60 vs 0.9 eV/atom for a-C in terms of the absorbed dose) are caused by a low cohesive energy of fullerene crystals. An efficient mechanism of the removal of intact C 60 molecules from the irradiated crystal due to Coulomb repulsion of fullerene-cage cation radicals formed by the ionizing radiation is revealed by a detailed modeling.},
doi = {10.1103/physrevb.96.214101},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = 21,
volume = 96,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92
journal, July 1993

  • Henke, B. L.; Gullikson, E. M.; Davis, J. C.
  • Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, Vol. 54, Issue 2, p. 181-342
  • DOI: 10.1006/adnd.1993.1013