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Title: Contrasting behavior of covalent and molecular carbon allotropes exposed to extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray free-electron laser radiation

Abstract

All carbon materials, e.g., amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings and C 60 fullerene thin films, play an important role in short-wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) research motivated by FEL optics development and prospective nanotechnology applications. We investigate responses of a-C and C 60 layers to the extreme ultraviolet (SPring-8 Compact SASE Source in Japan) and soft x-ray (free-electron laser in Hamburg) free-electron laser radiation by Raman spectroscopy, differential interference contrast, and atomic force microscopy. A remarkable difference in the behavior of covalent (a-C) and molecular ( C 60 ) carbonaceous solids is demonstrated under these irradiation conditions. Low thresholds for ablation of a fullerene crystal (estimated to be around 0.15 eV/atom for C 60 vs 0.9 eV/atom for a-C in terms of the absorbed dose) are caused by a low cohesive energy of fullerene crystals. An efficient mechanism of the removal of intact C 60 molecules from the irradiated crystal due to Coulomb repulsion of fullerene-cage cation radicals formed by the ionizing radiation is revealed by a detailed modeling.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [2];  [1];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [14];  [6]
  1. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics; Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)
  2. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics
  3. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics; Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)
  4. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Nuclear Physics Inst.
  5. Univ. of Bordeaux, Talence (France). CELIA Lab.
  6. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics, Inst. of Plasma Physics
  7. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Center for Free Electron Laser Science; Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Nuclear Physics
  8. RIKEN, Hyogo (Japan). Harima Inst.
  9. Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Physics
  10. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  11. European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL), Schenefeld (Germany)
  12. Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), (Germany)
  13. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Plasma Physics
  14. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1417299
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 14-29772S; LM2015083; CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001552; LG15013
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 96; Journal Issue: 21; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9950
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Toufarová, M., Hájková, V., Chalupský, J., Burian, T., Vacík, J., Vorlíček, V., Vyšín, L., Gaudin, J., Medvedev, N., Ziaja, B., Nagasono, M., Yabashi, M., Sobierajski, R., Krzywinski, J., Sinn, H., Störmer, M., Koláček, K., Tiedtke, K., Toleikis, S., and Juha, L. Contrasting behavior of covalent and molecular carbon allotropes exposed to extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray free-electron laser radiation. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/physrevb.96.214101.
Toufarová, M., Hájková, V., Chalupský, J., Burian, T., Vacík, J., Vorlíček, V., Vyšín, L., Gaudin, J., Medvedev, N., Ziaja, B., Nagasono, M., Yabashi, M., Sobierajski, R., Krzywinski, J., Sinn, H., Störmer, M., Koláček, K., Tiedtke, K., Toleikis, S., & Juha, L. Contrasting behavior of covalent and molecular carbon allotropes exposed to extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray free-electron laser radiation. United States. doi:10.1103/physrevb.96.214101.
Toufarová, M., Hájková, V., Chalupský, J., Burian, T., Vacík, J., Vorlíček, V., Vyšín, L., Gaudin, J., Medvedev, N., Ziaja, B., Nagasono, M., Yabashi, M., Sobierajski, R., Krzywinski, J., Sinn, H., Störmer, M., Koláček, K., Tiedtke, K., Toleikis, S., and Juha, L. Mon . "Contrasting behavior of covalent and molecular carbon allotropes exposed to extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray free-electron laser radiation". United States. doi:10.1103/physrevb.96.214101. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1417299.
@article{osti_1417299,
title = {Contrasting behavior of covalent and molecular carbon allotropes exposed to extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray free-electron laser radiation},
author = {Toufarová, M. and Hájková, V. and Chalupský, J. and Burian, T. and Vacík, J. and Vorlíček, V. and Vyšín, L. and Gaudin, J. and Medvedev, N. and Ziaja, B. and Nagasono, M. and Yabashi, M. and Sobierajski, R. and Krzywinski, J. and Sinn, H. and Störmer, M. and Koláček, K. and Tiedtke, K. and Toleikis, S. and Juha, L.},
abstractNote = {All carbon materials, e.g., amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings and C 60 fullerene thin films, play an important role in short-wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) research motivated by FEL optics development and prospective nanotechnology applications. We investigate responses of a-C and C 60 layers to the extreme ultraviolet (SPring-8 Compact SASE Source in Japan) and soft x-ray (free-electron laser in Hamburg) free-electron laser radiation by Raman spectroscopy, differential interference contrast, and atomic force microscopy. A remarkable difference in the behavior of covalent (a-C) and molecular ( C 60 ) carbonaceous solids is demonstrated under these irradiation conditions. Low thresholds for ablation of a fullerene crystal (estimated to be around 0.15 eV/atom for C 60 vs 0.9 eV/atom for a-C in terms of the absorbed dose) are caused by a low cohesive energy of fullerene crystals. An efficient mechanism of the removal of intact C 60 molecules from the irradiated crystal due to Coulomb repulsion of fullerene-cage cation radicals formed by the ionizing radiation is revealed by a detailed modeling.},
doi = {10.1103/physrevb.96.214101},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = 21,
volume = 96,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

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journal, June 2014

  • Murphy, B. F.; Osipov, T.; Jurek, Z.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5281

Nonthermal phase transitions in semiconductors induced by a femtosecond extreme ultraviolet laser pulse
journal, January 2013


Operation of a free-electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window
journal, June 2007


Damage of amorphous carbon induced by soft x-ray femtosecond pulses above and below the critical angle
journal, July 2009

  • Chalupský, J.; Hájková, V.; Altapova, V.
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  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3184785

A transferable tight-binding potential for carbon
journal, July 1992


Spontaneous and artificial direct nanostructuring of solid surface by extreme ultraviolet laser with nanosecond pulses
journal, November 2015


Electron-ion coupling in semiconductors beyond Fermi's golden rule
journal, January 2017


Inverse bremsstrahlung cross section estimated within evolving plasmas using effective ion potentials
journal, June 2009


Excimer-laser-induced electric conductivity in thin-film C60
journal, July 1993

  • Phillips, H. M.; Sarkar, D.; Halas, N. J.
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Single-shot soft x-ray laser-induced ablative microstructuring of organic polymer with demagnifying projection
journal, January 2008


Experimental set-up and procedures for the investigation of XUV free electron laser interactions with solids
journal, February 2013


Crystal structure and bonding of ordered C60
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Amorphous to crystalline phase transition in carbon induced by intense femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser pulses
journal, July 2012


Non-thermal desorption/ablation of molecular solids induced by ultra-short soft x-ray pulses
journal, December 2008

  • Chalupský, J.; Juha, L.; Hájková, V.
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  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.17.000208

X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92
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  • DOI: 10.1006/adnd.1993.1013

A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region
journal, July 2008


Extended tight-binding potential for modelling intertube interactions in carbon nanotubes
journal, January 2007


Investigations on the behaviour of C60 as a resist in X-ray lithography
journal, January 2005


Review of x-ray free-electron laser theory
journal, March 2007


Raman spectroscopy of the effect of reactor neutron irradiation on the structure of polycrystalline C60
journal, January 2005


Femtosecond X-ray induced electron kinetics in dielectrics: application for FEL-pulse-duration monitor
journal, January 2015


Ground state and phase transitions in solid C 60
journal, March 1992


Total reflection amorphous carbon mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet free electron lasers
journal, February 2004

  • Steeg, B.; Juha, L.; Feldhaus, J.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 84, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1645320

Fluence scan: an unexplored property of a laser beam
journal, January 2013

  • Chalupský, Jaromír; Burian, Tomáš; Hájková, Věra
  • Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.21.026363

Spot size characterization of focused non-Gaussian X-ray laser beams
journal, January 2010

  • Chalupský, J.; Krzywinski, J.; Juha, L.
  • Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.18.027836

Thermal stability of solid C 60
journal, January 1997


Preservation of far-UV aluminum reflectance by means of overcoating with C_60 films
journal, January 2000

  • Méndez, José A.; Larruquert, Juan I.; Aznárez, José A.
  • Applied Optics, Vol. 39, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1364/AO.39.000149

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92
    journal, July 1993

    • Henke, B. L.; Gullikson, E. M.; Davis, J. C.
    • Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, Vol. 54, Issue 2, p. 181-342
    • DOI: 10.1006/adnd.1993.1013

    Excimer-laser-induced electric conductivity in thin-film C60
    journal, July 1993

    • Phillips, H. M.; Sarkar, D.; Halas, N. J.
    • Applied Physics A Solids and Surfaces, Vol. 57, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1007/bf00331226

    Investigations on the behaviour of C60 as a resist in X-ray lithography
    journal, January 2005


    Femtosecond X-ray induced electron kinetics in dielectrics: application for FEL-pulse-duration monitor
    journal, January 2015


    Raman spectroscopy of the effect of reactor neutron irradiation on the structure of polycrystalline C60
    journal, January 2005


    Inverse bremsstrahlung cross section estimated within evolving plasmas using effective ion potentials
    journal, June 2009


    Spontaneous and artificial direct nanostructuring of solid surface by extreme ultraviolet laser with nanosecond pulses
    journal, November 2015


    Crystal structure and bonding of ordered C60
    journal, September 1991

    • David, William I. F.; Ibberson, Richard M.; Matthewman, Judy C.
    • Nature, Vol. 353, Issue 6340
    • DOI: 10.1038/353147a0

    Femtosecond X-ray-induced explosion of C60 at extreme intensity
    journal, June 2014

    • Murphy, B. F.; Osipov, T.; Jurek, Z.
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5281

    Operation of a free-electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window
    journal, June 2007


    A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region
    journal, July 2008


    Total reflection amorphous carbon mirrors for vacuum ultraviolet free electron lasers
    journal, February 2004

    • Steeg, B.; Juha, L.; Feldhaus, J.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 84, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1645320

    Damage of amorphous carbon induced by soft x-ray femtosecond pulses above and below the critical angle
    journal, July 2009

    • Chalupský, J.; Hájková, V.; Altapova, V.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3184785

    A transferable tight-binding potential for carbon
    journal, July 1992


    Extended tight-binding potential for modelling intertube interactions in carbon nanotubes
    journal, January 2007


    Nonthermal phase transitions in semiconductors induced by a femtosecond extreme ultraviolet laser pulse
    journal, January 2013


    Experimental set-up and procedures for the investigation of XUV free electron laser interactions with solids
    journal, February 2013


    Thermal stability of solid C 60
    journal, January 1997


    Amorphous to crystalline phase transition in carbon induced by intense femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser pulses
    journal, July 2012


    Electron-ion coupling in semiconductors beyond Fermi's golden rule
    journal, January 2017


    Ground state and phase transitions in solid C 60
    journal, March 1992


    Review of x-ray free-electron laser theory
    journal, March 2007


    Preservation of far-UV aluminum reflectance by means of overcoating with C_60 films
    journal, January 2000

    • Méndez, José A.; Larruquert, Juan I.; Aznárez, José A.
    • Applied Optics, Vol. 39, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1364/ao.39.000149

    Non-thermal desorption/ablation of molecular solids induced by ultra-short soft x-ray pulses
    journal, December 2008

    • Chalupský, J.; Juha, L.; Hájková, V.
    • Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1364/oe.17.000208

    Spot size characterization of focused non-Gaussian X-ray laser beams
    journal, January 2010

    • Chalupský, J.; Krzywinski, J.; Juha, L.
    • Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 26
    • DOI: 10.1364/oe.18.027836

    Fluence scan: an unexplored property of a laser beam
    journal, January 2013

    • Chalupský, Jaromír; Burian, Tomáš; Hájková, Věra
    • Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.1364/oe.21.026363

    Single-shot soft x-ray laser-induced ablative microstructuring of organic polymer with demagnifying projection
    journal, January 2008


    Contrasting behavior of covalent and molecular carbon allotropes exposed to extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray free-electron laser radiation
    text, January 2017

    • Toufarová, M.; Hájková, V.; Chalupský, J.
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2017-12783

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    Various damage mechanisms in carbon and silicon materials under femtosecond X-ray irradiation
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    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2018-03176