skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Custom 3D Printable Silicones with Tunable Stiffness

Abstract

Silicone elastomers have broad versatility within a variety of potential advanced materials applications, such as soft robotics, biomedical devices, and metamaterials. Furthermore, a series of custom 3D printable silicone inks with tunable stiffness is developed, formulated, and characterized. The silicone inks exhibit excellent rheological behavior for 3D printing, as observed from the printing of porous structures with controlled architectures. Here, the capability to tune the stiffness of printable silicone materials via careful control over the chemistry, network formation, and crosslink density of the ink formulations in order to overcome the challenging interplay between ink development, post-processing, material properties, and performance is demonstrated.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1417274
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1412573
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-735273
Journal ID: ISSN 1022-1336; TRN: US1801016
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 39; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1022-1336
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 3D printing; additive manufacturing; silicones; tunable stiffness

Citation Formats

Durban, Matthew M., Lenhardt, Jeremy M., Wu, Amanda S., Small, Ward, Bryson, Taylor M., Perez-Perez, Lemuel, Nguyen, Du T., Gammon, Stuart, Smay, James E., Duoss, Eric B., Lewicki, James P., and Wilson, Thomas S. Custom 3D Printable Silicones with Tunable Stiffness. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/marc.201700563.
Durban, Matthew M., Lenhardt, Jeremy M., Wu, Amanda S., Small, Ward, Bryson, Taylor M., Perez-Perez, Lemuel, Nguyen, Du T., Gammon, Stuart, Smay, James E., Duoss, Eric B., Lewicki, James P., & Wilson, Thomas S. Custom 3D Printable Silicones with Tunable Stiffness. United States. doi:10.1002/marc.201700563.
Durban, Matthew M., Lenhardt, Jeremy M., Wu, Amanda S., Small, Ward, Bryson, Taylor M., Perez-Perez, Lemuel, Nguyen, Du T., Gammon, Stuart, Smay, James E., Duoss, Eric B., Lewicki, James P., and Wilson, Thomas S. Wed . "Custom 3D Printable Silicones with Tunable Stiffness". United States. doi:10.1002/marc.201700563. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1417274.
@article{osti_1417274,
title = {Custom 3D Printable Silicones with Tunable Stiffness},
author = {Durban, Matthew M. and Lenhardt, Jeremy M. and Wu, Amanda S. and Small, Ward and Bryson, Taylor M. and Perez-Perez, Lemuel and Nguyen, Du T. and Gammon, Stuart and Smay, James E. and Duoss, Eric B. and Lewicki, James P. and Wilson, Thomas S.},
abstractNote = {Silicone elastomers have broad versatility within a variety of potential advanced materials applications, such as soft robotics, biomedical devices, and metamaterials. Furthermore, a series of custom 3D printable silicone inks with tunable stiffness is developed, formulated, and characterized. The silicone inks exhibit excellent rheological behavior for 3D printing, as observed from the printing of porous structures with controlled architectures. Here, the capability to tune the stiffness of printable silicone materials via careful control over the chemistry, network formation, and crosslink density of the ink formulations in order to overcome the challenging interplay between ink development, post-processing, material properties, and performance is demonstrated.},
doi = {10.1002/marc.201700563},
journal = {Macromolecular Rapid Communications},
number = 4,
volume = 39,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Effects of filler–polymer interactions on cold-crystallization kinetics in crosslinked, silica-filled polydimethylsiloxane/polydiphenylsiloxane copolymer melts
journal, January 2006

  • Chien, Allen; Maxwell, Robert S.; DeTeresa, Steve
  • Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, Vol. 44, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1002/polb.20848

Mechanical metamaterials at the theoretical limit of isotropic elastic stiffness
journal, February 2017

  • Berger, J. B.; Wadley, H. N. G.; McMeeking, R. M.
  • Nature, Vol. 543, Issue 7646
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature21075

Bound rubber and “crepe hardening” in silicone rubber
journal, December 1977


Frontiers of 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing: from Human Organs to Aircraft Fabrication†
journal, October 2016


3D Printing by Multiphase Silicone/Water Capillary Inks
journal, June 2017

  • Roh, Sangchul; Parekh, Dishit P.; Bharti, Bhuvnesh
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 30
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201701554

3D Printed Stretchable Tactile Sensors
journal, May 2017

  • Guo, Shuang-Zhuang; Qiu, Kaiyan; Meng, Fanben
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201701218

Direct Writing of Three-Dimensional Polymer Scaffolds Using Colloidal Gels
journal, September 2006

  • Xie, B.; Parkhill, R. L.; Warren, W. L.
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200500666

Topology Optimized Architectures with Programmable Poisson's Ratio over Large Deformations
journal, August 2015

  • Clausen, Anders; Wang, Fengwen; Jensen, Jakob S.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 37
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502485

Determination of water, silanol, and strained siloxane on silica surfaces
journal, March 1967

  • Kellum, Gene E.; Smith, Robert Carl.
  • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 39, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/ac60247a046

Ultralight, ultrastiff mechanical metamaterials
journal, June 2014


Recent Progress in Materials and Devices toward Printable and Flexible Sensors
journal, February 2016

  • Rim, You Seung; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Chen, Huajun
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505118

3D printed cellular solid outperforms traditional stochastic foam in long-term mechanical response
journal, April 2016

  • Maiti, A.; Small, W.; Lewicki, J. P.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep24871

Direct-Write Assembly of 3D Hydrogel Scaffolds for Guided Cell Growth
journal, June 2009

  • Barry, Robert A.; Shepherd, Robert F.; Hanson, Jennifer N.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 21, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.200803702

Multiscale metallic metamaterials
journal, July 2016

  • Zheng, Xiaoyu; Smith, William; Jackson, Julie
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 15, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4694

Fabrication of ZnO periodic structures by 3D printing
journal, November 2016


Buckling Pneumatic Linear Actuators Inspired by Muscle
journal, June 2016

  • Yang, Dian; Verma, Mohit S.; So, Ju-Hee
  • Advanced Materials Technologies, Vol. 1, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/admt.201600055

Supercapacitors Based on Three-Dimensional Hierarchical Graphene Aerogels with Periodic Macropores
journal, January 2016


Controlling Material Reactivity Using Architecture
journal, December 2015

  • Sullivan, Kyle T.; Zhu, Cheng; Duoss, Eric B.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201504286

Printing soft matter in three dimensions
journal, December 2016


Morphing Metal and Elastomer Bicontinuous Foams for Reversible Stiffness, Shape Memory, and Self-Healing Soft Machines
journal, February 2016

  • Van Meerbeek, Ilse M.; Mac Murray, Benjamin C.; Kim, Jae Woo
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505991

3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices
journal, September 2015

  • Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503132

A Bioactive Carbon Nanotube-Based Ink for Printing 2D and 3D Flexible Electronics
journal, February 2016

  • Shin, Su Ryon; Farzad, Raziyeh; Tamayol, Ali
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201506420

In-Plane Deformation Mechanics for Highly Stretchable Electronics
journal, December 2016


Strong, lightweight, and recoverable three-dimensional ceramic nanolattices
journal, September 2014


Architected Cellular Materials
journal, July 2016


An integrated design and fabrication strategy for entirely soft, autonomous robots
journal, August 2016

  • Wehner, Michael; Truby, Ryan L.; Fitzgerald, Daniel J.
  • Nature, Vol. 536, Issue 7617
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature19100

3D printing of concentrated emulsions into multiphase biocompatible soft materials
journal, January 2017

  • Sommer, Marianne R.; Alison, Lauriane; Minas, Clara
  • Soft Matter, Vol. 13, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1039/C6SM02682F

Highly Stretchable and UV Curable Elastomers for Digital Light Processing Based 3D Printing
journal, February 2017

  • Patel, Dinesh K.; Sakhaei, Amir Hosein; Layani, Michael
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201606000

Embedded 3D Printing of Strain Sensors within Highly Stretchable Elastomers
journal, June 2014

  • Muth, Joseph T.; Vogt, Daniel M.; Truby, Ryan L.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 36, p. 6307-6312
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201400334

Multistable Architected Materials for Trapping Elastic Strain Energy
journal, June 2015

  • Shan, Sicong; Kang, Sung H.; Raney, Jordan R.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 29
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501708

Poroelastic Foams for Simple Fabrication of Complex Soft Robots
journal, September 2015

  • Mac Murray, Benjamin C.; An, Xintong; Robinson, Sanlin S.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 41
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503464

A 3D-printed, functionally graded soft robot powered by combustion
journal, July 2015


Optoelectronically innervated soft prosthetic hand via stretchable optical waveguides
journal, November 2016


Correlations between thixotropic and structural properties of molecular gels with crystalline networks
journal, January 2016

  • Ajay Mallia, V.; Weiss, Richard G.
  • Soft Matter, Vol. 12, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1039/C6SM00377J

Three-dimensional bioprinting of thick vascularized tissues
journal, March 2016

  • Kolesky, David B.; Homan, Kimberly A.; Skylar-Scott, Mark A.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1521342113

3D Printed Silicones with Shape Memory
journal, July 2017


Colloidal Inks for Directed Assembly of 3-D Periodic Structures
journal, July 2002

  • Smay, James E.; Cesarano, Joseph; Lewis, Jennifer A.
  • Langmuir, Vol. 18, Issue 14, p. 5429-5437
  • DOI: 10.1021/la0257135

Direct ink writing of 3–3 piezoelectric composite
journal, January 2015


Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices
journal, April 2015

  • Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7962

Instrumented cardiac microphysiological devices via multimaterial three-dimensional printing
journal, October 2016

  • Lind, Johan U.; Busbee, Travis A.; Valentine, Alexander D.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4782

Thixotropy
journal, March 2009


Direct Ink Writing of Silicon Carbide for Microwave Optics: Direct Ink Writing of Silicon Carbide for Microwave 
journal, September 2015

  • Larson, Chris M.; Choi, Justin J.; Gallardo, Patricio A.
  • Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 18, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500298

Three-Dimensional Printing of Elastomeric, Cellular Architectures with Negative Stiffness
journal, May 2014

  • Duoss, Eric B.; Weisgraber, Todd H.; Hearon, Keith
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 24, Issue 31
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201400451

Melt and glass crystallization of PDMS and PDMS silica nanocomposites
journal, January 2014

  • Bosq, Nicolas; Guigo, Nathanaël; Persello, Jacques
  • Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., Vol. 16, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4CP00164H

Thixotropy—a review
journal, May 1997