skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Multipoint Observations of Energetic Particle Injections and Substorm Activity During a Conjunction Between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes

Abstract

Here, this study examines multipoint observations during a conjunction between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes on 7 April 2016 in which a series of energetic particle injections occurred. With complementary data from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms, Geotail, and Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit (16 spacecraft in total), we develop new insights on the nature of energetic particle injections associated with substorm activity. Despite this case involving only weak substorm activity (maximum AE <300 nT) during quiet geomagnetic conditions in steady, below-average solar wind, a complex series of at least six different electron injections was observed throughout the system. Intriguingly, only one corresponding ion injection was clearly observed. All ion and electron injections were observed at <600 keV only. MMS reveals detailed substructure within the largest electron injection. A relationship between injected electrons with energy <60 keV and enhanced whistler mode chorus wave activity is also established from Van Allen Probes and MMS. Drift mapping using a simplified magnetic field model provides estimates of the dispersionless injection boundary locations as a function of universal time, magnetic local time, and L shell. The analysis reveals that at least five electron injections, whichmore » were localized in magnetic local time, preceded a larger injection of both electrons and ions across nearly the entire nightside of the magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit. The larger ion and electron injection did not penetrate to L < 6.6, but several of the smaller electron injections penetrated to L < 6.6. Due to the discrepancy between the number, penetration depth, and complexity of electron versus ion injections, this event presents challenges to the current conceptual models of energetic particle injections.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [4]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [9] more »; ORCiD logo [10] « less
  1. The Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  3. Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Lab, Laurel, MD (United States)
  4. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  5. Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)
  6. CNRS/Ecole Polytechnique/UPMC Univ. Paris 06/Univ. Paris-Sud/Observatoire de Paris, Paris (France)
  7. Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)
  8. Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)
  9. Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)
  10. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1417178
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-31431
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9380; TRN: US1801007
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9380
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Heliospheric and Magnetospheric Physics

Citation Formats

Turner, Drew L., Fennell, J. F., Blake, J. B., Claudepierre, S. G., Clemmons, J. H., Jaynes, A. N., Leonard, T., Baker, D. N., Cohen, I. J., Gkioulidou, M., Ukhorskiy, A. Y., Mauk, B. H., Gabrielse, C., Angelopoulos, V., Strangeway, R. J., Kletzing, C. A., Le Contel, O., Spence, H. E., Torbert, R. B., Burch, J. L., and Reeves, Geoffrey D. Multipoint Observations of Energetic Particle Injections and Substorm Activity During a Conjunction Between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JA024554.
Turner, Drew L., Fennell, J. F., Blake, J. B., Claudepierre, S. G., Clemmons, J. H., Jaynes, A. N., Leonard, T., Baker, D. N., Cohen, I. J., Gkioulidou, M., Ukhorskiy, A. Y., Mauk, B. H., Gabrielse, C., Angelopoulos, V., Strangeway, R. J., Kletzing, C. A., Le Contel, O., Spence, H. E., Torbert, R. B., Burch, J. L., & Reeves, Geoffrey D. Multipoint Observations of Energetic Particle Injections and Substorm Activity During a Conjunction Between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JA024554.
Turner, Drew L., Fennell, J. F., Blake, J. B., Claudepierre, S. G., Clemmons, J. H., Jaynes, A. N., Leonard, T., Baker, D. N., Cohen, I. J., Gkioulidou, M., Ukhorskiy, A. Y., Mauk, B. H., Gabrielse, C., Angelopoulos, V., Strangeway, R. J., Kletzing, C. A., Le Contel, O., Spence, H. E., Torbert, R. B., Burch, J. L., and Reeves, Geoffrey D. Mon . "Multipoint Observations of Energetic Particle Injections and Substorm Activity During a Conjunction Between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JA024554. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1417178.
@article{osti_1417178,
title = {Multipoint Observations of Energetic Particle Injections and Substorm Activity During a Conjunction Between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes},
author = {Turner, Drew L. and Fennell, J. F. and Blake, J. B. and Claudepierre, S. G. and Clemmons, J. H. and Jaynes, A. N. and Leonard, T. and Baker, D. N. and Cohen, I. J. and Gkioulidou, M. and Ukhorskiy, A. Y. and Mauk, B. H. and Gabrielse, C. and Angelopoulos, V. and Strangeway, R. J. and Kletzing, C. A. and Le Contel, O. and Spence, H. E. and Torbert, R. B. and Burch, J. L. and Reeves, Geoffrey D.},
abstractNote = {Here, this study examines multipoint observations during a conjunction between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes on 7 April 2016 in which a series of energetic particle injections occurred. With complementary data from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms, Geotail, and Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit (16 spacecraft in total), we develop new insights on the nature of energetic particle injections associated with substorm activity. Despite this case involving only weak substorm activity (maximum AE <300 nT) during quiet geomagnetic conditions in steady, below-average solar wind, a complex series of at least six different electron injections was observed throughout the system. Intriguingly, only one corresponding ion injection was clearly observed. All ion and electron injections were observed at <600 keV only. MMS reveals detailed substructure within the largest electron injection. A relationship between injected electrons with energy <60 keV and enhanced whistler mode chorus wave activity is also established from Van Allen Probes and MMS. Drift mapping using a simplified magnetic field model provides estimates of the dispersionless injection boundary locations as a function of universal time, magnetic local time, and L shell. The analysis reveals that at least five electron injections, which were localized in magnetic local time, preceded a larger injection of both electrons and ions across nearly the entire nightside of the magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit. The larger ion and electron injection did not penetrate to L < 6.6, but several of the smaller electron injections penetrated to L < 6.6. Due to the discrepancy between the number, penetration depth, and complexity of electron versus ion injections, this event presents challenges to the current conceptual models of energetic particle injections.},
doi = {10.1002/2017JA024554},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics},
number = 11,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 4 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The development of the auroral substorm
journal, April 1964


Bursty bulk flows in the inner central plasma sheet
journal, January 1992

  • Angelopoulos, V.; Baumjohann, W.; Kennel, C. F.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, Issue A4
  • DOI: 10.1029/91JA02701

Statistical characteristics of bursty bulk flow events
journal, January 1994

  • Angelopoulos, V.; Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 99, Issue A11
  • DOI: 10.1029/94JA01263

The THEMIS Mission
journal, April 2008


Tail Reconnection Triggering Substorm Onset
journal, August 2008


Electromagnetic Energy Conversion at Reconnection Fronts
journal, September 2013


The THEMIS Fluxgate Magnetometer
journal, May 2008


Strong electron pitch angle diffusion observed at geostationary orbit
journal, March 1979

  • Baker, D. N.; Stauning, P.; Hones, E. W.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 6, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/GL006i003p00205

Near-equatorial, high-resolution measurements of electron precipitation at L ≃6.6
journal, January 1981

  • Baker, D. N.; Stauning, P.; Hones, E. W.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 86, Issue A4
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA086iA04p02295

Observation and modeling of energetic particles at synchronous orbit on July 29, 1977
journal, January 1982

  • Baker, D. N.; Fritz, T. A.; Wilken, B.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 87, Issue A8
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA087iA08p05917

Neutral line model of substorms: Past results and present view
journal, June 1996

  • Baker, D. N.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Angelopoulos, V.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 101, Issue A6
  • DOI: 10.1029/95JA03753

Hemispherical Joule Heating and the AE Indices
journal, January 1984


Characteristics of high-speed ion flows in the plasma sheet
journal, January 1990

  • Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Paschmann, Götz; Lühr, Hermann
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, Issue A4
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA095iA04p03801

Substorm ion injections: Geosynchronous observations and test particle orbits in three-dimensional dynamic MHD fields
journal, February 1997

  • Birn, J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Borovsky, J. E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 102, Issue A2
  • DOI: 10.1029/96JA03032

Substorm electron injections: Geosynchronous observations and test particle simulations
journal, May 1998

  • Birn, J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Borovsky, J. E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 103, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/97JA02635

Electron acceleration in the dynamic magnetotail: Test particle orbits in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation fields
journal, May 2004

  • Birn, J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Hesse, M.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 11, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1704641

Particle Acceleration in the Magnetotail and Aurora
journal, April 2012


The Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) Instruments Aboard the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Spacecraft
journal, June 2013

  • Blake, J. B.; Carranza, P. A.; Claudepierre, S. G.
  • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 179, Issue 1-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9991-8

The Fly’s Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) Sensors for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission
journal, June 2015


The occurrence rate of magnetospheric-substorm onsets: Random and periodic substorms
journal, March 1993

  • Borovsky, Joseph E.; Nemzek, Robert J.; Belian, Richard D.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 98, Issue A3
  • DOI: 10.1029/92JA02556

A model of the auroral electrojets
journal, December 1964


Magnetospheric Multiscale Overview and Science Objectives
journal, May 2015


Electron-scale measurements of magnetic reconnection in space
journal, May 2016


Pressure and entropy changes in the flow-braking region during magnetic field dipolarization: PLASMA CHANGES DURING DIPOLARIZATION
journal, October 2010

  • Dubyagin, S.; Sergeev, V.; Apatenkov, S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 115, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JA015625

Can flow bursts penetrate into the inner magnetosphere?: FAST FLOW PENETRATION
journal, April 2011

  • Dubyagin, S.; Sergeev, V.; Apatenkov, S.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011GL047016

The Axial Double Probe and Fields Signal Processing for the MMS Mission
journal, December 2014


Substorm onsets observed by CRRES: Determination of energetic particle source regions
journal, June 1996

  • Friedel, R. H. W.; Korth, A.; Kremser, G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 101, Issue A6
  • DOI: 10.1029/96JA00399

The effects of transient, localized electric fields on equatorial electron acceleration and transport toward the inner magnetosphere: LOCALIZED ELECTRIC FIELDS AND INJECTIONS
journal, October 2012

  • Gabrielse, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JA017873

Relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt: Differentiating between acceleration mechanisms
journal, January 2004


Are north-south aligned auroral structures an ionospheric manifestation of bursty bulk flows?
journal, October 1998

  • Henderson, M. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Murphree, J. S.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 25, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1029/98GL02692

Potential waves for relativistic electron scattering and stochastic acceleration during magnetic storms
journal, August 1998

  • Horne, Richard B.; Thorne, Richard M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 25, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1029/98GL01002

Timescale for radiation belt electron acceleration by whistler mode chorus waves
journal, January 2005


A global magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling model of substorms
journal, January 1993

  • Kan, J. R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/93JA01168

Substorm current wedge driven by plasma flow vortices: THEMIS observations: SUBSTORM CURRENT WEDGE AND FLOW VORTICES
journal, January 2009

  • Keiling, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 114, Issue A1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JA014114

Limit on stably trapped particle fluxes
journal, January 1966


Relative timing of substorm onset phenomena
journal, January 2004


Substorm Current Wedge Revisited
journal, December 2014


Solar wind spatial scales in and comparisons of hourly Wind and ACE plasma and magnetic field data
journal, January 2005


The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on RBSP
journal, June 2013


Substorm-injected protons and electrons and the injection boundary model
journal, February 1975

  • Konradi, Andrei; Semar, C. L.; Fritz, T. A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 80, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA080i004p00543

Temporal variations in the electron flux at synchronous altitudes
journal, December 1967

  • Lanzerotti, L. J.; Roberts, C. S.; Brown, W. L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 72, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1029/JZ072i023p05893

The Search-Coil Magnetometer for MMS
journal, September 2014


Simulation of dispersionless injections and drift echoes of energetic electrons associated with substorms
journal, October 1998

  • Li, Xinlin; Baker, D. N.; Temerin, M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 25, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1029/1998GL900001

Simulation of energetic particle injections associated with a substorm on August 27, 2001: PARTICLE INJECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SUBSTORMS
journal, January 2003

  • Li, Xinlin; Sarris, T. E.; Baker, D. N.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2002GL015967

The Spin-Plane Double Probe Electric Field Instrument for MMS
journal, November 2014


The energetic ion substorm injection boundary
journal, January 1990

  • Lopez, R. E.; Sibeck, D. G.; McEntire, R. W.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, Issue A1
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA095iA01p00109

A current disruption mechanism in the neutral sheet: A possible trigger for substorm expansions
journal, May 1990

  • Lui, A. T. Y.; Mankofsky, A.; Chang, C. -L.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 17, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/GL017i006p00745

Coupling of dipolarization front flow bursts to substorm expansion phase phenomena within the magnetosphere and ionosphere: DIPOLARIZATION FRONT AND EXPANSION PHASE
journal, February 2012

  • Lyons, L. R.; Nishimura, Y.; Xing, X.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA017265

Correlation of Kp with the substorm-injected plasma boundary
journal, August 1974

  • Mauk, Barry H.; McIlwain, Carl E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 79, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA079i022p03193

Plasma Injection During Substorms
journal, January 1987


Science Objectives and Rationale for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission
journal, September 2012


The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation and the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission
journal, June 2014


Growth phase of magnetospheric substorms
journal, October 1970


“Pancake” electron distributions in the outer radiation belts
journal, June 1999

  • Meredith, Nigel P.; Johnstone, Alan D.; Szita, Sarah
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 104, Issue A6
  • DOI: 10.1029/1998JA900083

Substorm dependence of chorus amplitudes: Implications for the acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies
journal, July 2001

  • Meredith, Nigel P.; Horne, Richard B.; Anderson, Roger R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 106, Issue A7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JA900156

Outer zone relativistic electron acceleration associated with substorm-enhanced whistler mode chorus
journal, January 2002


Statistical analysis of relativistic electron energies for cyclotron resonance with EMIC waves observed on CRRES
journal, January 2003


Favored regions for chorus-driven electron acceleration to relativistic energies in the Earth's outer radiation belt: CHORUS ACCELERATION TO RELATIVISTIC ENERGIES
journal, August 2003

  • Meredith, Nigel P.; Horne, Richard B.; Thorne, Richard M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1029/2003GL017698

Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE)
journal, April 2013


Propagating substorm injection fronts
journal, January 1981

  • Moore, T. E.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Feynman, J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 86, Issue A8
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA086iA08p06713

The Low Energy Particle (LEP) Experlment onboard the GEOTAIL Satellite.
journal, January 1994

  • Mukai, T.; Machida, S.; Saito, Y.
  • Journal of geomagnetism and geoelectricity, Vol. 46, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.5636/jgg.46.669

Interchange instability at the leading part of reconnection jets: INSTABILITY AT THE RECONNECTION JET FRONT
journal, April 2002

  • Nakamura, M. S.; Matsumoto, H.; Fujimoto, M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2001GL013780

Earthward flow bursts, auroral streamers, and small expansions
journal, June 2001

  • Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Schödel, R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 106, Issue A6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JA000306

Transient, small‐scale field‐aligned currents in the plasma sheet boundary layer during storm time substorms
journal, May 2016

  • Nakamura, R.; Sergeev, V. A.; Baumjohann, W.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 43, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068768

Steady magnetospheric convection: Statistical signatures in the solar wind and AE
journal, January 2002


Quantification of relativistic electron microburst losses during the GEM storms
journal, January 2004


Effects of the fast plasma sheet flow on the geosynchronous magnetic configuration: Geotail and GOES coordinated study
journal, January 2006

  • Ohtani, S.; Singer, H. J.; Mukai, T.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, Issue A1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011383

Tailward flows with positive B Z in the near-Earth plasma sheet : TAILWARD PLASMA FLOWS WITH POSITIVE
journal, June 2009

  • Ohtani, S.; Miyashita, Y.; Singer, H.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 114, Issue A6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JA014159

Intensity correlations and substorm electron drift effects in the outer radiation belt measured with the OGO 3 and ATS 1 satellites
journal, October 1969


Fast Plasma Investigation for Magnetospheric Multiscale
journal, March 2016


Multi-satellite measurements of the substorm injection region
journal, October 1990

  • Reeves, G. D.; Fritz, T. A.; Cayton, T. E.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 17, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1029/GL017i011p02015

Numerical tracing of energetic particle drifts in a model magnetosphere
journal, August 1991

  • Reeves, G. D.; Belian, R. D.; Fritz, T. A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 96, Issue A8
  • DOI: 10.1029/91JA01161

Electron Acceleration in the Heart of the Van Allen Radiation Belts
journal, July 2013


North-south structures in the midnight sector auroras as viewed by the Viking imager
journal, April 1987

  • Rostoker, Gordon; Lui, A. T. Y.; Anger, C. D.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/GL014i004p00407

The roles of direct input of energy from the solar wind and unloading of stored magnetotail energy in driving magnetospheric substorms
journal, January 1988

  • Rostoker, G.; Akasofu, S. I.; Baumjohann, W.
  • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 46, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00173876

Plasma sheet instability related to the westward traveling surge
journal, January 1991

  • Roux, A.; Perraut, S.; Robert, P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 96, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/91JA01106

THEMIS observations of an earthward-propagating dipolarization front
journal, January 2009

  • Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sitnov, M. I.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 36, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009GL038980

A THEMIS multicase study of dipolarization fronts in the magnetotail plasma sheet: DIPOLARIZATION FRONTS IN THE PLASMA SHEET
journal, May 2011

  • Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Zhou, X. -Z.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JA016316

The Magnetospheric Multiscale Magnetometers
journal, August 2014


Geomagnetic pulsations
journal, December 1969


Modeling energetic particle injections in dynamic pulse fields with varying propagation speeds
journal, January 2002


Dynamics of plasma, energetic particles, and fields near synchronous orbit in the nighttime sector during magnetospheric substorms
journal, January 1980


A comparative study of dipolarization fronts at MMS and Cluster: DFS OBSERVED BY MMS AND CLUSTER
journal, June 2016

  • Schmid, D.; Nakamura, R.; Volwerk, M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 43, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069520

Detection of localized, plasma-depleted flux tubes or bubbles in the midtail plasma sheet
journal, May 1996

  • Sergeev, V. A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Gosling, J. T.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 101, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/96JA00460

Development of auroral streamers in association with localized impulsive injections to the inner magnetotail
journal, February 1999

  • Sergeev, V. A.; Liou, K.; Meng, C. -I.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 26, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/1998GL900311

Kinetic structure of the sharp injection/dipolarization front in the flow-braking region
journal, January 2009

  • Sergeev, V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Apatenkov, S.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 36, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009GL040658

Energetic particle injections to geostationary orbit: Relationship to flow bursts and magnetospheric state: FLOW BURSTS AND INJECTIONS
journal, October 2012

  • Sergeev, V. A.; Chernyaev, I. A.; Dubyagin, S. V.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JA017773

Stopping flow bursts and their role in the generation of the substorm current wedge
journal, February 2014

  • Sergeev, V. A.; Chernyaev, I. A.; Angelopoulos, V.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059309

Evolution of electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt computed with the VERB code: VERB CODE
journal, November 2009

  • Shprits, Yuri Y.; Subbotin, Dmitri; Ni, Binbin
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 114, Issue A11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JA013784

Multi‐MeV electron loss in the heart of the radiation belts
journal, February 2017

  • Shprits, Yuri Y.; Kellerman, Adam; Aseev, Nikita
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016GL072258

Ground based identification of dispersionless electron injections
journal, January 2007

  • Spanswick, E.; Donovan, E.; Friedel, R.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GL028329

Injection region propagation outside of geosynchronous orbit: INJECTION REGION PROPAGATION
journal, November 2010

  • Spanswick, E.; Reeves, G. D.; Donovan, E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 115, Issue A11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JA015066

Two-satellite observations of substorm injections at geosynchronous orbit
journal, May 2001

  • Thomsen, M. F.; Birn, J.; Borovsky, J. E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 106, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JA000080

Scattering by chorus waves as the dominant cause of diffuse auroral precipitation
journal, October 2010

  • Thorne, Richard M.; Ni, Binbin; Tao, Xin
  • Nature, Vol. 467, Issue 7318
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature09467

Rapid local acceleration of relativistic radiation-belt electrons by magnetospheric chorus
journal, December 2013


The FIELDS Instrument Suite on MMS: Scientific Objectives, Measurements, and Data Products
journal, November 2014


Modeling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere during strong geomagnetic storms
journal, January 2005


Event-specific chorus wave and electron seed population models in DREAM3D using the Van Allen Probes: Tu et al.: Event-specific chorus and seed electrons
journal, March 2014

  • Tu, Weichao; Cunningham, G. S.; Chen, Y.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058819

Radial distributions of equatorial phase space density for outer radiation belt electrons: OUTER BELT ELECTRON PSD DISTRIBUTIONS
journal, May 2012

  • Turner, D. L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Shprits, Y.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051722

Energetic electron injections deep into the inner magnetosphere associated with substorm activity: Energetic particle injections at low L
journal, April 2015

  • Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063225

The role of drift orbit bifurcations in energization and loss of electrons in the outer radiation belt: THE ROLE OF DRIFT ORBIT BIFURCATIONS
journal, September 2011

  • Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sitnov, M. I.; Millan, R. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA016623

Energization of electrons at synchronous orbit by substorm-associated cross-magnetosphere electric fields
journal, June 1975


GEOTAIL Energetic Particles and Ion Composition Instrument.
journal, January 1994

  • Williams, D. J.; McEntire, R. W.; Schlemm II, C.
  • Journal of geomagnetism and geoelectricity, Vol. 46, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5636/jgg.46.39

Estimating local plasma sheet PV 5/3 from single-spacecraft measurements
journal, January 2006

  • Wolf, R. A.; Kumar, V.; Toffoletto, F. R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, Issue A12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006JA012010

Entropy and plasma sheet transport: ENTROPY AND PLASMA SHEET TRANSPORT
journal, May 2009

  • Wolf, R. A.; Wan, Yifei; Xing, X.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 114, Issue A9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JA014044

RCM-E simulation of ion acceleration during an idealized plasma sheet bubble injection: BUBBLE INJECTION
journal, May 2011

  • Yang, J.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Wolf, R. A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JA016346

RCM-E simulation of bimodal transport in the plasma sheet
journal, March 2014

  • Yang, Jian; Wolf, Richard A.; Toffoletto, Frank R.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059400

Particle transport and energization associated with substorms
journal, August 2000

  • Zaharia, Sorin; Cheng, C. Z.; Johnson, Jay R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 105, Issue A8
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999JA000407

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Explosive Magnetotail Activity
    journal, May 2019

    • Sitnov, Mikhail; Birn, Joachim; Ferdousi, Banafsheh
    • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 215, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11214-019-0599-5

    Explosive Magnetotail Activity
    journal, May 2019

    • Sitnov, Mikhail; Birn, Joachim; Ferdousi, Banafsheh
    • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 215, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11214-019-0599-5