skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Evaluating the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) at a coniferous forest site in northwestern United States using flux and carbon-isotope measurements

Abstract

Droughts in the western United States are expected to intensify with climate change. Thus, an adequate representation of ecosystem response to water stress in land models is critical for predicting carbon dynamics. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5 against observations at an old-growth coniferous forest site in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (Wind River AmeriFlux site), characterized by a Mediterranean climate that subjects trees to water stress each summer. CLM was driven by site-observed meteorology and calibrated primarily using parameter values observed at the site or at similar stands in the region. Key model adjustments included parameters controlling specific leaf area and stomatal conductance. Default values of these parameters led to significant underestimation of gross primary production, overestimation of evapotranspiration, and consequently overestimation of photosynthetic 13C discrimination, reflected in reduced 13C: 12C ratios of carbon fluxes and pools. Adjustments in soil hydraulic parameters within CLM were also critical, preventing significant underestimation of soil water content and unrealistic soil moisture stress during summer. After calibration, CLM was able to simulate energy and carbon fluxes, leaf area index, biomass stocks, and carbon isotope ratios of carbon fluxes andmore » pools in reasonable agreement with site observations. Overall, the calibrated CLM was able to simulate the observed response of canopy conductance to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil water content, reasonably capturing the impact of water stress on ecosystem functioning. Both simulations and observations indicate that stomatal response from water stress at Wind River was primarily driven by VPD and not soil moisture. The calibration of the Ball–Berry stomatal conductance slope ( m bb) at Wind River aligned with findings from recent CLM experiments at sites characterized by the same plant functional type (needleleaf evergreen temperate forest), despite significant differences in stand composition and age and climatology, suggesting that CLM could benefit from a revised m bb value of 6, rather than the default value of 9, for this plant functional type. Conversely, Wind River required a unique calibration of the hydrology submodel to simulate soil moisture, suggesting that the default hydrology has a more limited applicability. Here, this study demonstrates that carbon isotope data can be used to constrain stomatal conductance and intrinsic water use efficiency in CLM, as an alternative to eddy covariance flux measurements. It also demonstrates that carbon isotopes can expose structural weaknesses in the model and provide a key constraint that may guide future model development.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [3];  [2];  [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences
  2. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Biology
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  5. San Diego State Univ., San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Biology
  6. US Forest Service, Corvallis, OR (United States). Pacific Northwest Research Station
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1416930
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1468004
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; SC0010625; SC0010624; AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Biogeosciences (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Biogeosciences (Online); Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 18; Journal ID: ISSN 1726-4189
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Duarte, Henrique F., Raczka, Brett M., Ricciuto, Daniel M., Lin, John C., Koven, Charles D., Thornton, Peter E., Bowling, David R., Lai, Chun-Ta, Bible, Kenneth J., and Ehleringer, James R. Evaluating the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) at a coniferous forest site in northwestern United States using flux and carbon-isotope measurements. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.5194/bg-14-4315-2017.
Duarte, Henrique F., Raczka, Brett M., Ricciuto, Daniel M., Lin, John C., Koven, Charles D., Thornton, Peter E., Bowling, David R., Lai, Chun-Ta, Bible, Kenneth J., & Ehleringer, James R. Evaluating the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) at a coniferous forest site in northwestern United States using flux and carbon-isotope measurements. United States. doi:10.5194/bg-14-4315-2017.
Duarte, Henrique F., Raczka, Brett M., Ricciuto, Daniel M., Lin, John C., Koven, Charles D., Thornton, Peter E., Bowling, David R., Lai, Chun-Ta, Bible, Kenneth J., and Ehleringer, James R. Thu . "Evaluating the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) at a coniferous forest site in northwestern United States using flux and carbon-isotope measurements". United States. doi:10.5194/bg-14-4315-2017. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1416930.
@article{osti_1416930,
title = {Evaluating the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) at a coniferous forest site in northwestern United States using flux and carbon-isotope measurements},
author = {Duarte, Henrique F. and Raczka, Brett M. and Ricciuto, Daniel M. and Lin, John C. and Koven, Charles D. and Thornton, Peter E. and Bowling, David R. and Lai, Chun-Ta and Bible, Kenneth J. and Ehleringer, James R.},
abstractNote = {Droughts in the western United States are expected to intensify with climate change. Thus, an adequate representation of ecosystem response to water stress in land models is critical for predicting carbon dynamics. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5 against observations at an old-growth coniferous forest site in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (Wind River AmeriFlux site), characterized by a Mediterranean climate that subjects trees to water stress each summer. CLM was driven by site-observed meteorology and calibrated primarily using parameter values observed at the site or at similar stands in the region. Key model adjustments included parameters controlling specific leaf area and stomatal conductance. Default values of these parameters led to significant underestimation of gross primary production, overestimation of evapotranspiration, and consequently overestimation of photosynthetic 13C discrimination, reflected in reduced 13C:12C ratios of carbon fluxes and pools. Adjustments in soil hydraulic parameters within CLM were also critical, preventing significant underestimation of soil water content and unrealistic soil moisture stress during summer. After calibration, CLM was able to simulate energy and carbon fluxes, leaf area index, biomass stocks, and carbon isotope ratios of carbon fluxes and pools in reasonable agreement with site observations. Overall, the calibrated CLM was able to simulate the observed response of canopy conductance to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil water content, reasonably capturing the impact of water stress on ecosystem functioning. Both simulations and observations indicate that stomatal response from water stress at Wind River was primarily driven by VPD and not soil moisture. The calibration of the Ball–Berry stomatal conductance slope (mbb) at Wind River aligned with findings from recent CLM experiments at sites characterized by the same plant functional type (needleleaf evergreen temperate forest), despite significant differences in stand composition and age and climatology, suggesting that CLM could benefit from a revised mbb value of 6, rather than the default value of 9, for this plant functional type. Conversely, Wind River required a unique calibration of the hydrology submodel to simulate soil moisture, suggesting that the default hydrology has a more limited applicability. Here, this study demonstrates that carbon isotope data can be used to constrain stomatal conductance and intrinsic water use efficiency in CLM, as an alternative to eddy covariance flux measurements. It also demonstrates that carbon isotopes can expose structural weaknesses in the model and provide a key constraint that may guide future model development.},
doi = {10.5194/bg-14-4315-2017},
journal = {Biogeosciences (Online)},
number = 18,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The RCP greenhouse gas concentrations and their extensions from 1765 to 2300
journal, August 2011


Informing climate models with rapid chamber measurements of forest carbon uptake
journal, August 2016

  • Metcalfe, Daniel B.; Ricciuto, Daniel; Palmroth, Sari
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 23, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13451

20th century changes in carbon isotopes and water-use efficiency: tree-ring-based evaluation of the CLM4.5 and LPX-Bern models
journal, January 2017

  • Keller, Kathrin M.; Lienert, Sebastian; Bozbiyik, Anil
  • Biogeosciences, Vol. 14, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.5194/bg-14-2641-2017

Terrestrial cycling of 13 CO 2 by photosynthesis, respiration, and biomass burning in SiBCASA
journal, January 2014


Canopy-scale delta13C of photosynthetic and respiratory CO2 fluxes: observations in forest biomes across the United States
journal, April 2005


Projected changes in drought occurrence under future global warming from multi-model, multi-scenario, IPCC AR4 simulations
journal, November 2007


Combined Simple Biosphere/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach terrestrial carbon cycle model
journal, January 2008

  • Schaefer, Kevin; Collatz, G. James; Tans, Pieter
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue G3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JG000603

Components and Controls of Water Flux in an Old-growth Douglas-fir?Western Hemlock Ecosystem
journal, May 2004


Leaf area index of an old-growth Douglas-fir forest estimated from direct structural measurements in the canopy
journal, December 2000

  • Thomas, Sean C.; Winner, William E.
  • Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 30, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1139/x00-121

The Suess effect: 13Carbon-14Carbon interrelations
journal, January 1979


Impact of mesophyll diffusion on estimated global land CO2 fertilization
journal, October 2014

  • Sun, Y.; Gu, L.; Dickinson, R. E.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 44
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1418075111

An improved isotopic method for partitioning net ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 exchange
journal, December 2015


Evaluation and improvement of the Community Land Model (CLM4) in Oregon forests
journal, January 2013


CMIP5 projected changes in spring and summer drought and wet conditions over North America
journal, August 2014


Reconciling the optimal and empirical approaches to modelling stomatal conductance: RECONCILING OPTIMAL AND EMPIRICAL STOMATAL MODELS
journal, January 2011


Carbon isotopes in terrestrial ecosystem pools and CO 2 fluxes
journal, April 2008


Biosphere model simulations of interannual variability in terrestrial 13 C/ 12 C exchange : TERRESTRIAL
journal, July 2013

  • van der Velde, I. R.; Miller, J. B.; Schaefer, K.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 27, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/gbc.20048

A 1000-year high precision record of δ 13 C in atmospheric CO 2
journal, January 1999

  • Francey, R. J.; Allison, C. E.; Etheridge, D. M.
  • Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, Vol. 51, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3402/tellusb.v51i2.16269

Modeling the Recent Evolution of Global Drought and Projections for the Twenty-First Century with the Hadley Centre Climate Model
journal, October 2006

  • Burke, Eleanor J.; Brown, Simon J.; Christidis, Nikolaos
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vol. 7, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JHM544.1

Estimating the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to photosynthesis: a review: The sensitivity of conductance to photosynthesis
journal, February 2017

  • Miner, Grace L.; Bauerle, William L.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.
  • Plant, Cell & Environment, Vol. 40, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1111/pce.12871

Evaluating the Community Land Model in a pine stand with shading manipulations and 13 CO 2 labeling
journal, January 2016


Transient simulations of the carbon and nitrogen dynamics in northern peatlands: from the Last Glacial Maximum to the 21st century
journal, January 2013


Carbon allocation and carbon isotope fluxes in the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum: a review
journal, January 2011


An Improved Canopy Integration Scheme for a Land Surface Model with Prognostic Canopy Structure
journal, August 2007

  • Thornton, Peter E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 20, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI4222.1

Physiological and environmental regulation of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and transpiration: a model that includes a laminar boundary layer
journal, April 1991

  • Collatz, G. James; Ball, J. Timothy; Grivet, Cyril
  • Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 54, Issue 2-4
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-1923(91)90002-8

Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models
journal, August 2012


A Revised Land Surface Parameterization (SiB2) for Atmospheric GCMS. Part I: Model Formulation
journal, April 1996


Simulations show decreasing carbon stocks and potential for carbon emissions in Rocky Mountain forests over the next century
journal, July 2010

  • Boisvenue, Céline; Running, Steven W.
  • Ecological Applications, Vol. 20, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1890/09-0504.1

Partitioning forest carbon fluxes with overstory and understory eddy-covariance measurements: A synthesis based on FLUXNET data
journal, May 2007


Does turgor limit growth in tall trees?
journal, February 2004


Climate and interannual variability of the atmosphere-biosphere 13 CO 2 flux : ATMOSPHERE-BIOSPHERE
journal, January 2003

  • Scholze, M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Knorr, W.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2002GL015631

Isotopic Composition of Plant Carbon Correlates With Water-Use Efficiency of Wheat Genotypes
journal, January 1984

  • Farquhar, Gd; Richards, Ra
  • Functional Plant Biology, Vol. 11, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1071/PP9840539

Modeling and measuring the effects of disturbance history and climate on carbon and water budgets in evergreen needleleaf forests
journal, December 2002


Large near-term projected snowpack loss over the western United States
journal, April 2017

  • Fyfe, John C.; Derksen, Chris; Mudryk, Lawrence
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14996

Representing leaf and root physiological traits in CLM improves global carbon and nitrogen cycling predictions: LEAF AND ROOT TRAITS IN CLM
journal, May 2016

  • Ghimire, Bardan; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles D.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015MS000538

Widespread Increase of Tree Mortality Rates in the Western United States
journal, January 2009


Ecological Setting of the Wind River Old-growth Forest
journal, May 2004


On the separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and ecosystem respiration: review and improved algorithm
journal, September 2005


Prognostic canopy air space solutions for land surface exchanges
journal, December 2004


Multiple greenhouse-gas feedbacks from the land biosphere under future climate change scenarios
journal, April 2013

  • Stocker, Benjamin D.; Roth, Raphael; Joos, Fortunat
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1864

Old-growth CO2 flux measurements reveal high sensitivity to climate anomalies across seasonal, annual and decadal time scales
journal, August 2012


Parameterization and Sensitivity Analysis of the BIOME–BGC Terrestrial Ecosystem Model: Net Primary Production Controls
journal, January 2000


FLUXNET: A New Tool to Study the Temporal and Spatial Variability of Ecosystem–Scale Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Flux Densities
journal, November 2001


Running dry: The U.S. Southwest's drift into a drier climate state
journal, February 2016

  • Prein, Andreas F.; Holland, Gregory J.; Rasmussen, Roy M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 43, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066727

Can bottom-up ocean CO2 fluxes be reconciled with atmospheric 13C observations?
journal, January 2010


Temporal variation in ?13C of ecosystem respiration in the Pacific Northwest: links to moisture stress
journal, June 2003


Climate change adaptation strategies for federal forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA: ecological, policy, and socio-economic perspectives
journal, May 2010

  • Spies, Thomas A.; Giesen, Thomas W.; Swanson, Frederick J.
  • Landscape Ecology, Vol. 25, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10980-010-9483-0

Radiocarbon-Based Partitioning of Soil Respiration in an Old-Growth Coniferous Forest
journal, January 2015


An overview of models of stomatal conductance at the leaf level: Models of stomatal conductance
journal, July 2010


Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Photosynthesis
journal, June 1989

  • Farquhar, G. D.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Hubick, K. T.
  • Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 40, Issue 1, p. 503-537
  • DOI: 10.1146/annurev.pp.40.060189.002443

Predicting stomatal responses to the environment from the optimization of photosynthetic gain and hydraulic cost: A stomatal optimization model
journal, December 2016

  • Sperry, John S.; Venturas, Martin D.; Anderegg, William R. L.
  • Plant, Cell & Environment, Vol. 40, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1111/pce.12852

The implications of minimum stomatal conductance on modeling water flux in forest canopies: MINIMUM
journal, July 2013

  • Barnard, D. M.; Bauerle, W. L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 118, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20112

The application and interpretation of Keeling plots in terrestrial carbon cycle research
journal, March 2003

  • Pataki, D. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Flanagan, L. B.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 17, Issue 1, Article No. 1022
  • DOI: 10.1029/2001GB001850

A mechanistic model of H 2 18 O and C 18 OO fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere: Model description and sensitivity analyses : MODELING H
journal, November 2002

  • Riley, W. J.; Still, C. J.; Torn, M. S.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 16, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2002GB001878

Effects of different representations of stomatal conductance response to humidity across the African continent under warmer CO 2 -enriched climate conditions : STOMATA BEHAVIOR UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE
journal, May 2015

  • Sato, Hisashi; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Takahashi, Atsuhiro
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 120, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JG002838

Modeling terrestrial 13 C cycling: Climate, land use and fire : LAND USE AND TERRESTRIAL
journal, February 2008

  • Scholze, M.; Ciais, P.; Heimann, M.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 22, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GB002899

Simulation of carbon isotope discrimination of the terrestrial biosphere
journal, March 2005

  • Suits, N. S.; Denning, A. S.; Berry, J. A.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 19, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2003GB002141

Leaf area index of an old-growth Douglas-fir forest estimated from direct structural measurements in the canopy
journal, January 2000

  • Thomas, Sean C.; Winner, William E.
  • Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 30, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1139/cjfr-30-12-1922