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Title: A glimpse of gluons through deeply virtual compton scattering on the proton

Abstract

The proton is composed of quarks and gluons, bound by the most elusive mechanism of strong interaction called confinement. In this work, the dynamics of quarks and gluons are investigated using deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS): produced by a multi-GeV electron, a highly virtual photon scatters off the proton which subsequently radiates a high energy photon. Similarly to holography, measuring not only the magnitude but also the phase of the DVCS amplitude allows to perform 3D images of the internal structure of the proton. The phase is made accessible through the quantum-mechanical interference of DVCS with the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process, in which the final photon is emitted by the electron rather than the proton. Here, we report herein the first full determination of the BH-DVCS interference by exploiting the distinct energy dependences of the DVCS and BH amplitudes. In the high energy regime where the scattering process is expected to occur off a single quark in the proton, these accurate measurements show an intriguing sensitivity to gluons, the carriers of the strong interaction.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [8];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [11];  [11];  [15];  [16];  [11] more »;  [17];  [11];  [18];  [19];  [20];  [21];  [21];  [11];  [7];  [22];  [23];  [11];  [11];  [11];  [24];  [25];  [5];  [26];  [27];  [6];  [8];  [28];  [29];  [11];  [12];  [30];  [11];  [31]; ORCiD logo [32];  [8];  [33];  [6];  [9];  [34];  [21];  [11];  [11];  [35];  [36];  [11];  [14];  [37];  [38];  [39];  [11];  [3];  [12];  [40];  [13];  [7];  [1];  [41];  [11];  [42];  [32];  [43];  [35];  [44];  [7];  [45];  [5];  [7];  [31];  [46];  [31];  [11];  [18]; ORCiD logo [31];  [47];  [11];  [29];  [31];  [31];  [31] « less
  1. Univ. Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  2. Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS-IN2P, Orsay (France); Univ. de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain)
  3. Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, NY (United States)
  4. Texas A&M Univ.-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX (United States)
  5. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  6. California State Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  7. INFN/Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy)
  8. Clermont Univ., Aubire Cedex (France)
  9. Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)
  10. Clermont Univ., Aubire Cedex (France); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
  11. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
  12. Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
  13. Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)
  14. Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)
  15. Univ. di Bari, Bari (Italy)
  16. Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS-IN2P, Orsay (France)
  17. Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)
  18. Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  19. Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  20. Univ. Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Clermont Univ., Aubire Cedex (France); Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)
  21. INFN/Sezione Sanita, Roma (Italy)
  22. Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkiv Oblast (Ukraine)
  23. North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States)
  24. Longwood Univ., Farmville, VA (United States)
  25. The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, D.C. (United States)
  26. Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)
  27. Clermont Univ., Aubire Cedex (France); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
  28. Seoul National Univ., Seoul (South Korea)
  29. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)
  30. Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)
  31. Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)
  32. Kent State Univ., Kent, OH (United States)
  33. Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)
  34. Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Monastir (Tunisia)
  35. Univ. of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
  36. Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France); Clermont Univ., Aubire Cedex (France)
  37. Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France)
  38. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  39. Norfolk State Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
  40. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  41. Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Kasetsart Univ., Maha Nakhon (Thailand)
  42. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  43. Yerevan Physics Inst. (YerPhI), Yerevan (Armenia)
  44. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)
  45. George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)
  46. INFN/Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy)
  47. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
OSTI Identifier:
1416336
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1604278
Report Number(s):
JLAB-PHY-17-2492; DOE/OR/23177-4163; arXiv:1703.09442
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723; PII: 1819; TRN: US1800927
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-06OR23177; FG02-07ER41528
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Defurne, Maxime, Jimenez-Arguello, A. Marti, Ahmed, Z., Albataineh, H., Allada, K., Aniol, K. A., Bellini, V., Benali, M., Boeglin, W., Bertin, P., Brossard, M., Camsonne, A., Canan, M., Chandavar, S., Chen, C., Chen, J. -P., de Jager, C. W., de Leo, R., Desnault, C., Deur, A., El Fassi, L., Ent, R., Flay, D., Friend, M., Fuchey, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Gaskell, D., Giusa, A., Glamazdin, O., Golge, S., Gomez, J., Hansen, O., Higinbotham, D., Holmstrom, T., Horn, T., Huang, J., Huang, M., Hyde, C. E., Iqbal, S., Itard, F., Kang, H., Kelleher, A., Keppel, C., Koirala, S., Korover, I., LeRose, J. J., Lindgren, R., Long, E., Magne, M., Mammei, J., Margaziotis, D. J., Markowitz, P., Mazouz, M., Meddi, F., Meekins, D., Michaels, R., Mihovilovic, M., Camacho, C. Munoz, Nadel-Turonski, P., Nuruzzaman, N., Paremuzyan, R., Puckett, A., Punjabi, V., Qiang, Y., Rakhman, A., Rashad, M. N. H., Riordan, S., Roche, J., Russo, G., Sabatie, F., Saenboonruang, K., Saha, A., Sawatzky, B., Selvy, L., Shahinyan, A., Sirca, S., Solvignon, P., Sperduto, M. L., Subedi, R., Sulkosky, V., Sutera, C., Tobias, W. A., Urciuoli, G. M., Wang, D., Wojtsekhowski, B., Yao, H., Ye, Z., Zhan, X., Zhang, J., Zhao, B., Zhao, Z., Zheng, X., and Zhu, P. A glimpse of gluons through deeply virtual compton scattering on the proton. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01819-3.
Defurne, Maxime, Jimenez-Arguello, A. Marti, Ahmed, Z., Albataineh, H., Allada, K., Aniol, K. A., Bellini, V., Benali, M., Boeglin, W., Bertin, P., Brossard, M., Camsonne, A., Canan, M., Chandavar, S., Chen, C., Chen, J. -P., de Jager, C. W., de Leo, R., Desnault, C., Deur, A., El Fassi, L., Ent, R., Flay, D., Friend, M., Fuchey, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Gaskell, D., Giusa, A., Glamazdin, O., Golge, S., Gomez, J., Hansen, O., Higinbotham, D., Holmstrom, T., Horn, T., Huang, J., Huang, M., Hyde, C. E., Iqbal, S., Itard, F., Kang, H., Kelleher, A., Keppel, C., Koirala, S., Korover, I., LeRose, J. J., Lindgren, R., Long, E., Magne, M., Mammei, J., Margaziotis, D. J., Markowitz, P., Mazouz, M., Meddi, F., Meekins, D., Michaels, R., Mihovilovic, M., Camacho, C. Munoz, Nadel-Turonski, P., Nuruzzaman, N., Paremuzyan, R., Puckett, A., Punjabi, V., Qiang, Y., Rakhman, A., Rashad, M. N. H., Riordan, S., Roche, J., Russo, G., Sabatie, F., Saenboonruang, K., Saha, A., Sawatzky, B., Selvy, L., Shahinyan, A., Sirca, S., Solvignon, P., Sperduto, M. L., Subedi, R., Sulkosky, V., Sutera, C., Tobias, W. A., Urciuoli, G. M., Wang, D., Wojtsekhowski, B., Yao, H., Ye, Z., Zhan, X., Zhang, J., Zhao, B., Zhao, Z., Zheng, X., & Zhu, P. A glimpse of gluons through deeply virtual compton scattering on the proton. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01819-3.
Defurne, Maxime, Jimenez-Arguello, A. Marti, Ahmed, Z., Albataineh, H., Allada, K., Aniol, K. A., Bellini, V., Benali, M., Boeglin, W., Bertin, P., Brossard, M., Camsonne, A., Canan, M., Chandavar, S., Chen, C., Chen, J. -P., de Jager, C. W., de Leo, R., Desnault, C., Deur, A., El Fassi, L., Ent, R., Flay, D., Friend, M., Fuchey, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Gaskell, D., Giusa, A., Glamazdin, O., Golge, S., Gomez, J., Hansen, O., Higinbotham, D., Holmstrom, T., Horn, T., Huang, J., Huang, M., Hyde, C. E., Iqbal, S., Itard, F., Kang, H., Kelleher, A., Keppel, C., Koirala, S., Korover, I., LeRose, J. J., Lindgren, R., Long, E., Magne, M., Mammei, J., Margaziotis, D. J., Markowitz, P., Mazouz, M., Meddi, F., Meekins, D., Michaels, R., Mihovilovic, M., Camacho, C. Munoz, Nadel-Turonski, P., Nuruzzaman, N., Paremuzyan, R., Puckett, A., Punjabi, V., Qiang, Y., Rakhman, A., Rashad, M. N. H., Riordan, S., Roche, J., Russo, G., Sabatie, F., Saenboonruang, K., Saha, A., Sawatzky, B., Selvy, L., Shahinyan, A., Sirca, S., Solvignon, P., Sperduto, M. L., Subedi, R., Sulkosky, V., Sutera, C., Tobias, W. A., Urciuoli, G. M., Wang, D., Wojtsekhowski, B., Yao, H., Ye, Z., Zhan, X., Zhang, J., Zhao, B., Zhao, Z., Zheng, X., and Zhu, P. Fri . "A glimpse of gluons through deeply virtual compton scattering on the proton". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01819-3. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1416336.
@article{osti_1416336,
title = {A glimpse of gluons through deeply virtual compton scattering on the proton},
author = {Defurne, Maxime and Jimenez-Arguello, A. Marti and Ahmed, Z. and Albataineh, H. and Allada, K. and Aniol, K. A. and Bellini, V. and Benali, M. and Boeglin, W. and Bertin, P. and Brossard, M. and Camsonne, A. and Canan, M. and Chandavar, S. and Chen, C. and Chen, J. -P. and de Jager, C. W. and de Leo, R. and Desnault, C. and Deur, A. and El Fassi, L. and Ent, R. and Flay, D. and Friend, M. and Fuchey, E. and Frullani, S. and Garibaldi, F. and Gaskell, D. and Giusa, A. and Glamazdin, O. and Golge, S. and Gomez, J. and Hansen, O. and Higinbotham, D. and Holmstrom, T. and Horn, T. and Huang, J. and Huang, M. and Hyde, C. E. and Iqbal, S. and Itard, F. and Kang, H. and Kelleher, A. and Keppel, C. and Koirala, S. and Korover, I. and LeRose, J. J. and Lindgren, R. and Long, E. and Magne, M. and Mammei, J. and Margaziotis, D. J. and Markowitz, P. and Mazouz, M. and Meddi, F. and Meekins, D. and Michaels, R. and Mihovilovic, M. and Camacho, C. Munoz and Nadel-Turonski, P. and Nuruzzaman, N. and Paremuzyan, R. and Puckett, A. and Punjabi, V. and Qiang, Y. and Rakhman, A. and Rashad, M. N. H. and Riordan, S. and Roche, J. and Russo, G. and Sabatie, F. and Saenboonruang, K. and Saha, A. and Sawatzky, B. and Selvy, L. and Shahinyan, A. and Sirca, S. and Solvignon, P. and Sperduto, M. L. and Subedi, R. and Sulkosky, V. and Sutera, C. and Tobias, W. A. and Urciuoli, G. M. and Wang, D. and Wojtsekhowski, B. and Yao, H. and Ye, Z. and Zhan, X. and Zhang, J. and Zhao, B. and Zhao, Z. and Zheng, X. and Zhu, P.},
abstractNote = {The proton is composed of quarks and gluons, bound by the most elusive mechanism of strong interaction called confinement. In this work, the dynamics of quarks and gluons are investigated using deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS): produced by a multi-GeV electron, a highly virtual photon scatters off the proton which subsequently radiates a high energy photon. Similarly to holography, measuring not only the magnitude but also the phase of the DVCS amplitude allows to perform 3D images of the internal structure of the proton. The phase is made accessible through the quantum-mechanical interference of DVCS with the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process, in which the final photon is emitted by the electron rather than the proton. Here, we report herein the first full determination of the BH-DVCS interference by exploiting the distinct energy dependences of the DVCS and BH amplitudes. In the high energy regime where the scattering process is expected to occur off a single quark in the proton, these accurate measurements show an intriguing sensitivity to gluons, the carriers of the strong interaction.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-017-01819-3},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

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