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Title: A glimpse of gluons through deeply virtual compton scattering on the proton

The proton is composed of quarks and gluons, bound by the most elusive mechanism of strong interaction called confinement. In this work, the dynamics of quarks and gluons are investigated using deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS): produced by a multi-GeV electron, a highly virtual photon scatters off the proton which subsequently radiates a high energy photon. Similarly to holography, measuring not only the magnitude but also the phase of the DVCS amplitude allows to perform 3D images of the internal structure of the proton. The phase is made accessible through the quantum-mechanical interference of DVCS with the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process, in which the final photon is emitted by the electron rather than the proton. Here, we report herein the first full determination of the BH-DVCS interference by exploiting the distinct energy dependences of the DVCS and BH amplitudes. In the high energy regime where the scattering process is expected to occur off a single quark in the proton, these accurate measurements show an intriguing sensitivity to gluons, the carriers of the strong interaction.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [8] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [13] ;  [14] ;  [11] ;  [11] ;  [15] ;  [16] ;  [11] more »;  [17] ;  [11] ;  [18] ;  [19] ;  [20] ;  [21] ;  [21] ;  [11] ;  [7] ;  [22] ;  [23] ;  [11] ;  [11] ;  [11] ;  [24] ;  [25] ;  [5] ;  [26] ;  [27] ;  [6] ;  [8] ;  [28] ;  [29] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [30] ;  [11] ;  [31] ; ORCiD logo [32] ;  [8] ;  [33] ;  [6] ;  [9] ;  [34] ;  [21] ;  [11] ;  [11] ;  [35] ;  [36] ;  [11] ;  [14] ;  [37] ;  [38] ;  [39] ;  [11] ;  [3] ;  [12] ;  [40] ;  [13] ;  [7] ;  [1] ;  [41] ;  [11] ;  [42] ;  [32] ;  [43] ;  [35] ;  [44] ;  [7] ;  [45] ;  [5] ;  [7] ;  [31] ;  [46] ;  [31] ;  [11] ;  [18] ; ORCiD logo [31] ;  [47] ;  [11] ;  [29] ;  [31] ;  [31] ;  [31] « less
  1. Univ. Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  2. Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS-IN2P, Orsay (France); Univ. de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain)
  3. Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, NY (United States)
  4. Texas A&M Univ.-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX (United States)
  5. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  6. California State Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  7. INFN/Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy)
  8. Clermont Univ., Aubire Cedex (France)
  9. Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)
  10. Clermont Univ., Aubire Cedex (France); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
  11. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
  12. Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
  13. Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)
  14. Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)
  15. Univ. di Bari, Bari (Italy)
  16. Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS-IN2P, Orsay (France)
  17. Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)
  18. Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  19. Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  20. Univ. Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Clermont Univ., Aubire Cedex (France); Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)
  21. INFN/Sezione Sanita, Roma (Italy)
  22. Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkiv Oblast (Ukraine)
  23. North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States)
  24. Longwood Univ., Farmville, VA (United States)
  25. The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, D.C. (United States)
  26. Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)
  27. Clermont Univ., Aubire Cedex (France); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
  28. Seoul National Univ., Seoul (South Korea)
  29. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)
  30. Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)
  31. Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)
  32. Kent State Univ., Kent, OH (United States)
  33. Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)
  34. Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Monastir (Tunisia)
  35. Univ. of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
  36. Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France); Clermont Univ., Aubire Cedex (France)
  37. Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France)
  38. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  39. Norfolk State Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
  40. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  41. Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Kasetsart Univ., Maha Nakhon (Thailand)
  42. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  43. Yerevan Physics Inst. (YerPhI), Yerevan (Armenia)
  44. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)
  45. George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)
  46. INFN/Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy)
  47. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
JLAB-PHY-17-2492; DOE/OR/23177-4163; arXiv:1703.09442
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723; PII: 1819
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-06OR23177
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS
OSTI Identifier:
1416336