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Title: Potential seal bypass and caprock storage produced by deformation-band-to-opening-mode-fracture transition at the reservoir/caprock interface

Abstract

Here, we examined the potential impact on CO 2 transport of zones of deformation bands in reservoir rock that transition to opening-mode fractures within overlying caprock. Sedimentological and petrophysical measurements were collected along an approximately 5 m × 5 m outcrop of the Slick Rock and Earthy Members of the Entrada Sandstone on the eastern flank of the San Rafael Swell, Utah, USA. Measured deformation band permeability (2 mD) within the reservoir facies is about three orders of magnitude lower than the host sandstone. Average permeability of the caprock facies (0.0005 mD) is about seven orders of magnitude lower than the host sandstone. Aperture-based permeability estimates of the opening-mode caprock fractures are high (3.3 × 10 7 mD). High-resolution CO 2–H 2O transport models incorporate these permeability data at the millimeter scale. We then varied fault properties at the reservoir/caprock interface between open fractures and deformation bands as part of a sensitivity study. Numerical modeling results suggest that zones of deformation bands within the reservoir strongly compartmentalize reservoir pressures largely blocking lateral, cross-fault flow of supercritical CO 2. Significant vertical CO 2 transport into the caprock occurred in some scenarios along opening-mode fractures. The magnitude of this vertical CO 2more » transport depends on the small-scale geometry of the contact between the opening-mode fracture and the zone of deformation bands, as well as the degree to which fractures penetrate caprock. Finally, the presence of relatively permeable units within the caprock allows storage of significant volumes of CO 2, particularly when the fracture network does not extend all the way through the caprock.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [4];  [4]
  1. New Mexico Tech., Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Science
  2. Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology
  3. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  4. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1416301
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1400767; OSTI ID: 1497662
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-27584; SAND-2017-1967J
Journal ID: ISSN 1468-8115
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396; FE0004844; SC0001114; AC04-94AL85000; DEFE0004844
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geofluids
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1468-8115
Publisher:
Hindawi
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; caprock; carbon storage; deformation bands; fractures; multiphase flow; reservoir rock; seal bypass

Citation Formats

Raduha, S., Butler, D., Mozley, P. S., Person, M., Evans, J., Heath, J. E., Dewers, T. A., Stauffer, P. H., Gable, C. W., and Kelkar, S. Potential seal bypass and caprock storage produced by deformation-band-to-opening-mode-fracture transition at the reservoir/caprock interface. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1111/gfl.12177.
Raduha, S., Butler, D., Mozley, P. S., Person, M., Evans, J., Heath, J. E., Dewers, T. A., Stauffer, P. H., Gable, C. W., & Kelkar, S. Potential seal bypass and caprock storage produced by deformation-band-to-opening-mode-fracture transition at the reservoir/caprock interface. United States. doi:10.1111/gfl.12177.
Raduha, S., Butler, D., Mozley, P. S., Person, M., Evans, J., Heath, J. E., Dewers, T. A., Stauffer, P. H., Gable, C. W., and Kelkar, S. Sat . "Potential seal bypass and caprock storage produced by deformation-band-to-opening-mode-fracture transition at the reservoir/caprock interface". United States. doi:10.1111/gfl.12177. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1416301.
@article{osti_1416301,
title = {Potential seal bypass and caprock storage produced by deformation-band-to-opening-mode-fracture transition at the reservoir/caprock interface},
author = {Raduha, S. and Butler, D. and Mozley, P. S. and Person, M. and Evans, J. and Heath, J. E. and Dewers, T. A. and Stauffer, P. H. and Gable, C. W. and Kelkar, S.},
abstractNote = {Here, we examined the potential impact on CO2 transport of zones of deformation bands in reservoir rock that transition to opening-mode fractures within overlying caprock. Sedimentological and petrophysical measurements were collected along an approximately 5 m × 5 m outcrop of the Slick Rock and Earthy Members of the Entrada Sandstone on the eastern flank of the San Rafael Swell, Utah, USA. Measured deformation band permeability (2 mD) within the reservoir facies is about three orders of magnitude lower than the host sandstone. Average permeability of the caprock facies (0.0005 mD) is about seven orders of magnitude lower than the host sandstone. Aperture-based permeability estimates of the opening-mode caprock fractures are high (3.3 × 107 mD). High-resolution CO2–H2O transport models incorporate these permeability data at the millimeter scale. We then varied fault properties at the reservoir/caprock interface between open fractures and deformation bands as part of a sensitivity study. Numerical modeling results suggest that zones of deformation bands within the reservoir strongly compartmentalize reservoir pressures largely blocking lateral, cross-fault flow of supercritical CO2. Significant vertical CO2 transport into the caprock occurred in some scenarios along opening-mode fractures. The magnitude of this vertical CO2 transport depends on the small-scale geometry of the contact between the opening-mode fracture and the zone of deformation bands, as well as the degree to which fractures penetrate caprock. Finally, the presence of relatively permeable units within the caprock allows storage of significant volumes of CO2, particularly when the fracture network does not extend all the way through the caprock.},
doi = {10.1111/gfl.12177},
journal = {Geofluids},
number = 4,
volume = 16,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Examples of possible variations in the character of reservoir/caprock interfaces resulting from stratigraphic, structural, and diagenetic processes.

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