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Title: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Effects of Grid-Scale Electricity Storage in a Decarbonizing Power System

While grid-scale electricity storage (hereafter 'storage') could be crucial for deeply decarbonizing the electric power system, it would increase carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions in current systems across the United States. To better understand how storage transitions from increasing to decreasing system CO 2 emissions, we quantify the effect of storage on operational CO 2 emissions as a power system decarbonizes under a moderate and strong CO 2 emission reduction target through 2045. Under each target, we compare the effect of storage on CO 2 emissions when storage participates in only energy, only reserve, and energy and reserve markets. We conduct our study in the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system and use a capacity expansion model to forecast generator fleet changes and a unit commitment and economic dispatch model to quantify system CO 2 emissions with and without storage. We find that storage would increase CO 2 emissions in the current ERCOT system, but would decrease CO 2 emissions in 2025 through 2045 under both decarbonization targets. Storage reduces CO 2 emissions primarily by enabling gas-fired generation to displace coal-fired generation, but also by reducing wind and solar curtailment. We further find that the market in which storagemore » participates drives large differences in the magnitude, but not the direction, of the effect of storage on CO 2 emissions.« less
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Engineering and Public Policy
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1748-9326
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308; EFRI-1441131; A14OAR4310249; ACI-1548562
Published Article
Journal Name:
Environmental Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 13; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-9326
IOP Publishing
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Claire and John Bertucci Fellowship; ARCS Foundation; National Science Foundation (NSF); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; carbon dioxide; storage; electricity; power system
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1422876