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Title: An Examination of Diameter Density Prediction with k-NN and Airborne Lidar

Abstract

While lidar-based forest inventory methods have been widely demonstrated, performances of methods to predict tree diameters with airborne lidar (lidar) are not well understood. One cause for this is that the performance metrics typically used in studies for prediction of diameters can be difficult to interpret, and may not support comparative inferences between sampling designs and study areas. To help with this problem we propose two indices and use them to evaluate a variety of lidar and k nearest neighbor (k-NN) strategies for prediction of tree diameter distributions. The indices are based on the coefficient of determination (R2), and root mean square deviation (RMSD). Both of the indices are highly interpretable, and the RMSD-based index facilitates comparisons with alternative (non-lidar) inventory strategies, and with projects in other regions. K-NN diameter distribution prediction strategies were examined using auxiliary lidar for 190 training plots distribute across the 800 km2 Savannah River Site in South Carolina, USA. In conclusion, we evaluate the performance of k-NN with respect to distance metrics, number of neighbors, predictor sets, and response sets. K-NN and lidar explained 80% of variability in diameters, and Mahalanobis distance with k = 3 neighbors performed best according to a number of criteria.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [4]
  1. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  2. Washington State Dept. of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Eastern Finland, Joensuu (Finland)
  4. Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Acquisition and Project Management
OSTI Identifier:
1415439
Report Number(s):
17-05-P
Journal ID: ISSN 1999-4907; PII: f8110444; TRN: US1800825
Grant/Contract Number:  
AI09-00SR22188
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Forests
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 1999-4907
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; forest inventory; dbh; diameter distribution; performance criteria

Citation Formats

Strunk, Jacob L., Gould, Peter J., Packalen, Petteri, Poudel, Krishna P., Andersen, Hans -Erik, and Temesgen, Hailemariam. An Examination of Diameter Density Prediction with k-NN and Airborne Lidar. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3390/f8110444.
Strunk, Jacob L., Gould, Peter J., Packalen, Petteri, Poudel, Krishna P., Andersen, Hans -Erik, & Temesgen, Hailemariam. An Examination of Diameter Density Prediction with k-NN and Airborne Lidar. United States. doi:10.3390/f8110444.
Strunk, Jacob L., Gould, Peter J., Packalen, Petteri, Poudel, Krishna P., Andersen, Hans -Erik, and Temesgen, Hailemariam. Thu . "An Examination of Diameter Density Prediction with k-NN and Airborne Lidar". United States. doi:10.3390/f8110444. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1415439.
@article{osti_1415439,
title = {An Examination of Diameter Density Prediction with k-NN and Airborne Lidar},
author = {Strunk, Jacob L. and Gould, Peter J. and Packalen, Petteri and Poudel, Krishna P. and Andersen, Hans -Erik and Temesgen, Hailemariam},
abstractNote = {While lidar-based forest inventory methods have been widely demonstrated, performances of methods to predict tree diameters with airborne lidar (lidar) are not well understood. One cause for this is that the performance metrics typically used in studies for prediction of diameters can be difficult to interpret, and may not support comparative inferences between sampling designs and study areas. To help with this problem we propose two indices and use them to evaluate a variety of lidar and k nearest neighbor (k-NN) strategies for prediction of tree diameter distributions. The indices are based on the coefficient of determination (R2), and root mean square deviation (RMSD). Both of the indices are highly interpretable, and the RMSD-based index facilitates comparisons with alternative (non-lidar) inventory strategies, and with projects in other regions. K-NN diameter distribution prediction strategies were examined using auxiliary lidar for 190 training plots distribute across the 800 km2 Savannah River Site in South Carolina, USA. In conclusion, we evaluate the performance of k-NN with respect to distance metrics, number of neighbors, predictor sets, and response sets. K-NN and lidar explained 80% of variability in diameters, and Mahalanobis distance with k = 3 neighbors performed best according to a number of criteria.},
doi = {10.3390/f8110444},
journal = {Forests},
number = 11,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Prediction of Diameter Distributions with Multimodal Models Using LiDAR Data in Subtropical Planted Forests
    journal, February 2019

    • Zhang, Zhengnan; Cao, Lin; Mulverhill, Christopher
    • Forests, Vol. 10, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3390/f10020125

    Increasing Precision for French Forest Inventory Estimates using the k-NN Technique with Optical and Photogrammetric Data and Model-Assisted Estimators
    journal, April 2019

    • Irulappa-Pillai-Vijayakumar, Dinesh Babu; Renaud, Jean-Pierre; Morneau, François
    • Remote Sensing, Vol. 11, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.3390/rs11080991

    Prediction of diameter distributions and tree-lists in southwestern Oregon using LiDAR and stand-level auxiliary information
    journal, July 2019

    • Mauro, Francisco; Frank, Bryce; Monleon, Vicente J.
    • Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 49, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1139/cjfr-2018-0332