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Title: Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

Here, after completing the main construction phase of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and successfully commissioning the device, first plasma operation started at the end of 2015. Integral commissioning of plasma start-up and operation using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and an extensive set of plasma diagnostics have been completed, allowing initial physics studies during the first operational campaign. Both in helium and hydrogen, plasma breakdown was easily achieved. Gaining experience with plasma vessel conditioning, discharge lengths could be extended gradually. Eventually, discharges lasted up to 6 s, reaching an injected energy of 4 MJ, which is twice the limit originally agreed for the limiter configuration employed during the first operational campaign. At power levels of 4 MW central electron densities reached 3 × 10 19 m –3, central electron temperatures reached values of 7 keV and ion temperatures reached just above 2 keV. Important physics studies during this first operational phase include a first assessment of power balance and energy confinement, ECRH power deposition experiments, 2nd harmonic O-mode ECRH using multi-pass absorption, and current drive experiments using electron cyclotron current drive. As in many plasma discharges the electron temperature exceeds the ion temperature significantly, these plasmas are governed by core electronmore » root confinement showing a strong positive electric field in the plasma centre.« less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ORCiD logo ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-24681
Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5515; TRN: US1800798
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396; AC05-00OR22725; AC02-09-CH11466
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Fusion
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 57; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5515
Publisher:
IOP Science
Research Org:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC). Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24); USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; Magnetic Fusion Energy; stellarator; magnetic confinement; plasma heating; current drive
OSTI Identifier:
1415399
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1422602; OSTI ID: 1425136

Wolf, R. C., Ali, A., Alonso, A., Baldzuhn, J., Beidler, C., Beurskens, M., Biedermann, C., Bosch, H. -S., Bozhenkov, S., Brakel, R., Dinklage, A., Feng, Y., Fuchert, G., Geiger, J., Grulke, O., Helander, P., Hirsch, M., Höfel, U., Jakubowski, M., Knauer, J., Kocsis, G., König, R., Kornejew, P., Krämer-Flecken, A., Krychowiak, M., Landreman, M., Langenberg, A., Laqua, H. P., Lazerson, S., Maaßberg, H., Marsen, S., Marushchenko, M., Moseev, D., Niemann, H., Pablant, N., Pasch, E., Rahbarnia, K., Schlisio, G., Stange, T., Sunn Pedersen, T., Svensson, J., Szepesi, T., Trimino Mora, H., Turkin, Y., Wauters, T., Weir, G., Wenzel, U., Windisch, T., Wurden, G., Zhang, D., Abramovic, I., Äkäslompolo, S., Aleynikov, P., Aleynikova, K., Alzbutas, R., Anda, G., Andreeva, T., Ascasibar, E., Assmann, J., Baek, S. -G., Banduch, M., Barbui, T., Barlak, M., Baumann, K., Behr, W., Benndorf, A., Bertuch, O., Biel, W., Birus, D., Blackwell, B., Blanco, E., Blatzheim, M., Bluhm, T., Böckenhoff, D., Bolgert, P., Borchardt, M., Borsuk, V., Boscary, J., Böttger, L. -G., Brand, H., Brandt, Ch., Bräuer, T., Braune, H., Brezinsek, S., Brunner, K. -J., Brünner, B., Burhenn, R., Buttenschön, B., Bykov, V., Calvo, I., Cannas, B., Cappa, A., Carls, A., Carraro, L., Carvalho, B., Castejon, F., Charl, A., Chernyshev, F., Cianciosa, M., Citarella, R., Ciupiński, Ł., Claps, G., Cole, M., Cole, M. J., Cordella, F., Cseh, G., Czarnecka, A., Czermak, A., Czerski, K., Czerwinski, M., Czymek, G., da Molin, A., da Silva, A., Dammertz, G., Danielson, J., de la Pena, A., Degenkolbe, S., Denner, P., Dhard, D. P., Dostal, M., Drevlak, M., Drewelow, P., Drews, Ph., Dudek, A., Dundulis, G., Durodie, F., van Eeten, P., Effenberg, F., Ehrke, G., Endler, M., Ennis, D., Erckmann, E., Esteban, H., Estrada, T., Fahrenkamp, N., Feist, J. -H., Fellinger, J., Fernandes, H., Fietz, W. H., Figacz, W., Fontdecaba, J., Ford, O., Fornal, T., Frerichs, H., Freund, A., Führer, M., Funaba, T., Galkowski, A., Gantenbein, G., Gao, Y., García Regaña, J., Garcia-Munoz, M., Gates, D., Gawlik, G., Geiger, B., Giannella, V., Gierse, N., Gogoleva, A., Goncalves, B., Goriaev, A., Gradic, D., Grahl, M., Green, J., Grosman, A., Grote, H., Gruca, M., Guerard, C., Haiduk, L., Han, X., Harberts, F., Harris, J. H., Hartfuß, H. -J., Hartmann, D., Hathiramani, D., Hein, B., Heinemann, B., Heitzenroeder, P., Henneberg, S., Hennig, C., Hernandez Sanchez, J., Hidalgo, C., Hölbe, H., Hollfeld, K. P., Hölting, A., Höschen, D., Houry, M., Howard, J., Huang, X., Huber, M., Huber, V., Hunger, H., Ida, K., Ilkei, T., Illy, S., Israeli, B., Ivanov, A., Jablonski, S., Jagielski, J., Jelonnek, J., Jenzsch, H., Junghans, P., Kacmarczyk, J., Kaliatka, T., Kallmeyer, J. -P., Kamionka, U., Karalevicius, R., Kasahara, H., Kasparek, W., Kenmochi, N., Keunecke, M., Khilchenko, A., Kinna, D., Kleiber, R., Klinger, T., Knaup, M., Kobarg, Th., Köchl, F., Kolesnichenko, Y., Könies, A., Köppen, M., Koshurinov, J., Koslowski, R., Köster, F., Koziol, R., Krämer, M., Krampitz, R., Kraszewsk, P., Krawczyk, N., Kremeyer, T., Krings, Th., Krom, J., Krzesinski, G., Ksiazek, I., Kubkowska, M., Kühner, G., Kurki-Suonio, T., Kwak, S., Lang, R., Langish, S., Laqua, H., Laube, R., Lechte, C., Lennartz, M., Leonhardt, W., Lewerentz, L., Liang, Y., Linsmeier, Ch., Liu, S., Lobsien, J. -F., Loesser, D., Loizu Cisquella, J., Lore, J., Lorenz, A., Losert, M., Lubyako, L., Lücke, A., Lumsdaine, A., Lutsenko, V., Majano-Brown, J., Marchuk, O., Mardenfeld, M., Marek, P., Massidda, S., Masuzaki, S., Maurer, D., McCarthy, K., McNeely, P., Meier, A., Mellein, D., Mendelevitch, B., Mertens, Ph., Mikkelsen, D., Mishchenko, O., Missal, B., Mittelstaedt, J., Mizuuchi, T., Mollen, A., Moncada, V., Mönnich, T., Morizaki, T., Munk, R., Murakami, S., Musielok, F., Náfrádi, G., Nagel, M., Naujoks, D., Neilson, H., Neubauer, O., Neuner, U., Ngo, T., Nocentini, R., Nührenberg, C., Nührenberg, J., Obermayer, S., Offermanns, G., Ogawa, K., Ongena, J., Oosterbeek, J. W., Orozco, G., Otte, M., Pacios Rodriguez, L., Pan, W., Panadero, N., Panadero Alvarez, N., Panin, A., Papenfuß, D., Paqay, S., Pavone, A., Pawelec, E., Pelka, G., Peng, X., Perseo, V., Peterson, B., Pieper, A., Pilopp, D., Pingel, S., Pisano, F., Plaum, B., Plunk, G., Povilaitis, M., Preinhaelter, J., Proll, J., Puiatti, M. -E., Puig Sitjes, A., Purps, F., Rack, M., Récsei, S., Reiman, A., Reiter, D., Remppel, F., Renard, S., Riedl, R., Riemann, J., Rimkevicius, S., Riße, K., Rodatos, A., Röhlinger, H., Romé, M., Rong, P., Roscher, H. -J., Roth, B., Rudischhauser, L., Rummel, K., Rummel, T., Runov, A., Rust, N., Ryc, L., Ryosuke, S., Sakamoto, R., Samartsev, A., Sanchez, M., Sano, F., Satake, S., Satheeswaran, G., Schacht, J., Schauer, F., Scherer, T., Schlaich, A., Schlüter, K. -H., Schmitt, J., Schmitz, H., Schmitz, O., Schmuck, S., Schneider, M., Schneider, W., Scholz, M., Scholz, P., Schrittwieser, R., Schröder, M., Schröder, T., Schroeder, R., Schumacher, H., Schweer, B., Shanahan, B., Shikhovtsev, I. V., Sibilia, M., Sinha, P., Sipliä, S., Skodzik, J., Slaby, C., Smith, H., Spiess, W., Spong, D. A., Spring, A., Stadler, R., Standley, B., Stephey, L., Stoneking, M., Stridde, U., Sulek, Z., Surko, C., Suzuki, Y., Szabó, V., Szabolics, T., Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z., Tamura, N., Terra, A., Terry, J., Thomas, J., Thomsen, H., Thumm, M., von Thun, C. P., Timmermann, D., Titus, P., Toi, K., Travere, J. M., Traverso, P., Tretter, J., Tsuchiya, H., Tsujimura, T., Tulipán, S., Turnyanskiy, M., Unterberg, B., Urban, J., Urbonavicius, E., Vakulchyk, I., Valet, S., van Millingen, B., Vela, L., Velasco, J. -L., Vergote, M., Vervier, M., Vianello, N., Viebke, H., Vilbrandt, R., Vorkörper, A., Wadle, S., Wagner, F., Wang, E., Wang, N., Warmer, F., Wegener, L., Weggen, J., Wei, Y., Wendorf, J., Werner, A., Wiegel, B., Wilde, F., Winkler, E., Winters, V., Wolf, S., Wolowski, J., Wright, A., Xanthopoulos, P., Yamada, H., Yamada, I., Yasuhara, R., Yokoyama, M., Zajac, J., Zarnstorff, M., Zeitler, A., Zhang, H., Zhu, J., Zilker, M., Zimbal, A., Zocco, A., Zoletnik, S., and Zuin, M.. Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa770d.
Wolf, R. C., Ali, A., Alonso, A., Baldzuhn, J., Beidler, C., Beurskens, M., Biedermann, C., Bosch, H. -S., Bozhenkov, S., Brakel, R., Dinklage, A., Feng, Y., Fuchert, G., Geiger, J., Grulke, O., Helander, P., Hirsch, M., Höfel, U., Jakubowski, M., Knauer, J., Kocsis, G., König, R., Kornejew, P., Krämer-Flecken, A., Krychowiak, M., Landreman, M., Langenberg, A., Laqua, H. P., Lazerson, S., Maaßberg, H., Marsen, S., Marushchenko, M., Moseev, D., Niemann, H., Pablant, N., Pasch, E., Rahbarnia, K., Schlisio, G., Stange, T., Sunn Pedersen, T., Svensson, J., Szepesi, T., Trimino Mora, H., Turkin, Y., Wauters, T., Weir, G., Wenzel, U., Windisch, T., Wurden, G., Zhang, D., Abramovic, I., Äkäslompolo, S., Aleynikov, P., Aleynikova, K., Alzbutas, R., Anda, G., Andreeva, T., Ascasibar, E., Assmann, J., Baek, S. -G., Banduch, M., Barbui, T., Barlak, M., Baumann, K., Behr, W., Benndorf, A., Bertuch, O., Biel, W., Birus, D., Blackwell, B., Blanco, E., Blatzheim, M., Bluhm, T., Böckenhoff, D., Bolgert, P., Borchardt, M., Borsuk, V., Boscary, J., Böttger, L. -G., Brand, H., Brandt, Ch., Bräuer, T., Braune, H., Brezinsek, S., Brunner, K. -J., Brünner, B., Burhenn, R., Buttenschön, B., Bykov, V., Calvo, I., Cannas, B., Cappa, A., Carls, A., Carraro, L., Carvalho, B., Castejon, F., Charl, A., Chernyshev, F., Cianciosa, M., Citarella, R., Ciupiński, Ł., Claps, G., Cole, M., Cole, M. J., Cordella, F., Cseh, G., Czarnecka, A., Czermak, A., Czerski, K., Czerwinski, M., Czymek, G., da Molin, A., da Silva, A., Dammertz, G., Danielson, J., de la Pena, A., Degenkolbe, S., Denner, P., Dhard, D. P., Dostal, M., Drevlak, M., Drewelow, P., Drews, Ph., Dudek, A., Dundulis, G., Durodie, F., van Eeten, P., Effenberg, F., Ehrke, G., Endler, M., Ennis, D., Erckmann, E., Esteban, H., Estrada, T., Fahrenkamp, N., Feist, J. -H., Fellinger, J., Fernandes, H., Fietz, W. H., Figacz, W., Fontdecaba, J., Ford, O., Fornal, T., Frerichs, H., Freund, A., Führer, M., Funaba, T., Galkowski, A., Gantenbein, G., Gao, Y., García Regaña, J., Garcia-Munoz, M., Gates, D., Gawlik, G., Geiger, B., Giannella, V., Gierse, N., Gogoleva, A., Goncalves, B., Goriaev, A., Gradic, D., Grahl, M., Green, J., Grosman, A., Grote, H., Gruca, M., Guerard, C., Haiduk, L., Han, X., Harberts, F., Harris, J. H., Hartfuß, H. -J., Hartmann, D., Hathiramani, D., Hein, B., Heinemann, B., Heitzenroeder, P., Henneberg, S., Hennig, C., Hernandez Sanchez, J., Hidalgo, C., Hölbe, H., Hollfeld, K. P., Hölting, A., Höschen, D., Houry, M., Howard, J., Huang, X., Huber, M., Huber, V., Hunger, H., Ida, K., Ilkei, T., Illy, S., Israeli, B., Ivanov, A., Jablonski, S., Jagielski, J., Jelonnek, J., Jenzsch, H., Junghans, P., Kacmarczyk, J., Kaliatka, T., Kallmeyer, J. -P., Kamionka, U., Karalevicius, R., Kasahara, H., Kasparek, W., Kenmochi, N., Keunecke, M., Khilchenko, A., Kinna, D., Kleiber, R., Klinger, T., Knaup, M., Kobarg, Th., Köchl, F., Kolesnichenko, Y., Könies, A., Köppen, M., Koshurinov, J., Koslowski, R., Köster, F., Koziol, R., Krämer, M., Krampitz, R., Kraszewsk, P., Krawczyk, N., Kremeyer, T., Krings, Th., Krom, J., Krzesinski, G., Ksiazek, I., Kubkowska, M., Kühner, G., Kurki-Suonio, T., Kwak, S., Lang, R., Langish, S., Laqua, H., Laube, R., Lechte, C., Lennartz, M., Leonhardt, W., Lewerentz, L., Liang, Y., Linsmeier, Ch., Liu, S., Lobsien, J. -F., Loesser, D., Loizu Cisquella, J., Lore, J., Lorenz, A., Losert, M., Lubyako, L., Lücke, A., Lumsdaine, A., Lutsenko, V., Majano-Brown, J., Marchuk, O., Mardenfeld, M., Marek, P., Massidda, S., Masuzaki, S., Maurer, D., McCarthy, K., McNeely, P., Meier, A., Mellein, D., Mendelevitch, B., Mertens, Ph., Mikkelsen, D., Mishchenko, O., Missal, B., Mittelstaedt, J., Mizuuchi, T., Mollen, A., Moncada, V., Mönnich, T., Morizaki, T., Munk, R., Murakami, S., Musielok, F., Náfrádi, G., Nagel, M., Naujoks, D., Neilson, H., Neubauer, O., Neuner, U., Ngo, T., Nocentini, R., Nührenberg, C., Nührenberg, J., Obermayer, S., Offermanns, G., Ogawa, K., Ongena, J., Oosterbeek, J. W., Orozco, G., Otte, M., Pacios Rodriguez, L., Pan, W., Panadero, N., Panadero Alvarez, N., Panin, A., Papenfuß, D., Paqay, S., Pavone, A., Pawelec, E., Pelka, G., Peng, X., Perseo, V., Peterson, B., Pieper, A., Pilopp, D., Pingel, S., Pisano, F., Plaum, B., Plunk, G., Povilaitis, M., Preinhaelter, J., Proll, J., Puiatti, M. -E., Puig Sitjes, A., Purps, F., Rack, M., Récsei, S., Reiman, A., Reiter, D., Remppel, F., Renard, S., Riedl, R., Riemann, J., Rimkevicius, S., Riße, K., Rodatos, A., Röhlinger, H., Romé, M., Rong, P., Roscher, H. -J., Roth, B., Rudischhauser, L., Rummel, K., Rummel, T., Runov, A., Rust, N., Ryc, L., Ryosuke, S., Sakamoto, R., Samartsev, A., Sanchez, M., Sano, F., Satake, S., Satheeswaran, G., Schacht, J., Schauer, F., Scherer, T., Schlaich, A., Schlüter, K. -H., Schmitt, J., Schmitz, H., Schmitz, O., Schmuck, S., Schneider, M., Schneider, W., Scholz, M., Scholz, P., Schrittwieser, R., Schröder, M., Schröder, T., Schroeder, R., Schumacher, H., Schweer, B., Shanahan, B., Shikhovtsev, I. V., Sibilia, M., Sinha, P., Sipliä, S., Skodzik, J., Slaby, C., Smith, H., Spiess, W., Spong, D. A., Spring, A., Stadler, R., Standley, B., Stephey, L., Stoneking, M., Stridde, U., Sulek, Z., Surko, C., Suzuki, Y., Szabó, V., Szabolics, T., Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z., Tamura, N., Terra, A., Terry, J., Thomas, J., Thomsen, H., Thumm, M., von Thun, C. P., Timmermann, D., Titus, P., Toi, K., Travere, J. M., Traverso, P., Tretter, J., Tsuchiya, H., Tsujimura, T., Tulipán, S., Turnyanskiy, M., Unterberg, B., Urban, J., Urbonavicius, E., Vakulchyk, I., Valet, S., van Millingen, B., Vela, L., Velasco, J. -L., Vergote, M., Vervier, M., Vianello, N., Viebke, H., Vilbrandt, R., Vorkörper, A., Wadle, S., Wagner, F., Wang, E., Wang, N., Warmer, F., Wegener, L., Weggen, J., Wei, Y., Wendorf, J., Werner, A., Wiegel, B., Wilde, F., Winkler, E., Winters, V., Wolf, S., Wolowski, J., Wright, A., Xanthopoulos, P., Yamada, H., Yamada, I., Yasuhara, R., Yokoyama, M., Zajac, J., Zarnstorff, M., Zeitler, A., Zhang, H., Zhu, J., Zilker, M., Zimbal, A., Zocco, A., Zoletnik, S., & Zuin, M.. Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa770d.
Wolf, R. C., Ali, A., Alonso, A., Baldzuhn, J., Beidler, C., Beurskens, M., Biedermann, C., Bosch, H. -S., Bozhenkov, S., Brakel, R., Dinklage, A., Feng, Y., Fuchert, G., Geiger, J., Grulke, O., Helander, P., Hirsch, M., Höfel, U., Jakubowski, M., Knauer, J., Kocsis, G., König, R., Kornejew, P., Krämer-Flecken, A., Krychowiak, M., Landreman, M., Langenberg, A., Laqua, H. P., Lazerson, S., Maaßberg, H., Marsen, S., Marushchenko, M., Moseev, D., Niemann, H., Pablant, N., Pasch, E., Rahbarnia, K., Schlisio, G., Stange, T., Sunn Pedersen, T., Svensson, J., Szepesi, T., Trimino Mora, H., Turkin, Y., Wauters, T., Weir, G., Wenzel, U., Windisch, T., Wurden, G., Zhang, D., Abramovic, I., Äkäslompolo, S., Aleynikov, P., Aleynikova, K., Alzbutas, R., Anda, G., Andreeva, T., Ascasibar, E., Assmann, J., Baek, S. -G., Banduch, M., Barbui, T., Barlak, M., Baumann, K., Behr, W., Benndorf, A., Bertuch, O., Biel, W., Birus, D., Blackwell, B., Blanco, E., Blatzheim, M., Bluhm, T., Böckenhoff, D., Bolgert, P., Borchardt, M., Borsuk, V., Boscary, J., Böttger, L. -G., Brand, H., Brandt, Ch., Bräuer, T., Braune, H., Brezinsek, S., Brunner, K. -J., Brünner, B., Burhenn, R., Buttenschön, B., Bykov, V., Calvo, I., Cannas, B., Cappa, A., Carls, A., Carraro, L., Carvalho, B., Castejon, F., Charl, A., Chernyshev, F., Cianciosa, M., Citarella, R., Ciupiński, Ł., Claps, G., Cole, M., Cole, M. J., Cordella, F., Cseh, G., Czarnecka, A., Czermak, A., Czerski, K., Czerwinski, M., Czymek, G., da Molin, A., da Silva, A., Dammertz, G., Danielson, J., de la Pena, A., Degenkolbe, S., Denner, P., Dhard, D. P., Dostal, M., Drevlak, M., Drewelow, P., Drews, Ph., Dudek, A., Dundulis, G., Durodie, F., van Eeten, P., Effenberg, F., Ehrke, G., Endler, M., Ennis, D., Erckmann, E., Esteban, H., Estrada, T., Fahrenkamp, N., Feist, J. -H., Fellinger, J., Fernandes, H., Fietz, W. H., Figacz, W., Fontdecaba, J., Ford, O., Fornal, T., Frerichs, H., Freund, A., Führer, M., Funaba, T., Galkowski, A., Gantenbein, G., Gao, Y., García Regaña, J., Garcia-Munoz, M., Gates, D., Gawlik, G., Geiger, B., Giannella, V., Gierse, N., Gogoleva, A., Goncalves, B., Goriaev, A., Gradic, D., Grahl, M., Green, J., Grosman, A., Grote, H., Gruca, M., Guerard, C., Haiduk, L., Han, X., Harberts, F., Harris, J. H., Hartfuß, H. -J., Hartmann, D., Hathiramani, D., Hein, B., Heinemann, B., Heitzenroeder, P., Henneberg, S., Hennig, C., Hernandez Sanchez, J., Hidalgo, C., Hölbe, H., Hollfeld, K. P., Hölting, A., Höschen, D., Houry, M., Howard, J., Huang, X., Huber, M., Huber, V., Hunger, H., Ida, K., Ilkei, T., Illy, S., Israeli, B., Ivanov, A., Jablonski, S., Jagielski, J., Jelonnek, J., Jenzsch, H., Junghans, P., Kacmarczyk, J., Kaliatka, T., Kallmeyer, J. -P., Kamionka, U., Karalevicius, R., Kasahara, H., Kasparek, W., Kenmochi, N., Keunecke, M., Khilchenko, A., Kinna, D., Kleiber, R., Klinger, T., Knaup, M., Kobarg, Th., Köchl, F., Kolesnichenko, Y., Könies, A., Köppen, M., Koshurinov, J., Koslowski, R., Köster, F., Koziol, R., Krämer, M., Krampitz, R., Kraszewsk, P., Krawczyk, N., Kremeyer, T., Krings, Th., Krom, J., Krzesinski, G., Ksiazek, I., Kubkowska, M., Kühner, G., Kurki-Suonio, T., Kwak, S., Lang, R., Langish, S., Laqua, H., Laube, R., Lechte, C., Lennartz, M., Leonhardt, W., Lewerentz, L., Liang, Y., Linsmeier, Ch., Liu, S., Lobsien, J. -F., Loesser, D., Loizu Cisquella, J., Lore, J., Lorenz, A., Losert, M., Lubyako, L., Lücke, A., Lumsdaine, A., Lutsenko, V., Majano-Brown, J., Marchuk, O., Mardenfeld, M., Marek, P., Massidda, S., Masuzaki, S., Maurer, D., McCarthy, K., McNeely, P., Meier, A., Mellein, D., Mendelevitch, B., Mertens, Ph., Mikkelsen, D., Mishchenko, O., Missal, B., Mittelstaedt, J., Mizuuchi, T., Mollen, A., Moncada, V., Mönnich, T., Morizaki, T., Munk, R., Murakami, S., Musielok, F., Náfrádi, G., Nagel, M., Naujoks, D., Neilson, H., Neubauer, O., Neuner, U., Ngo, T., Nocentini, R., Nührenberg, C., Nührenberg, J., Obermayer, S., Offermanns, G., Ogawa, K., Ongena, J., Oosterbeek, J. W., Orozco, G., Otte, M., Pacios Rodriguez, L., Pan, W., Panadero, N., Panadero Alvarez, N., Panin, A., Papenfuß, D., Paqay, S., Pavone, A., Pawelec, E., Pelka, G., Peng, X., Perseo, V., Peterson, B., Pieper, A., Pilopp, D., Pingel, S., Pisano, F., Plaum, B., Plunk, G., Povilaitis, M., Preinhaelter, J., Proll, J., Puiatti, M. -E., Puig Sitjes, A., Purps, F., Rack, M., Récsei, S., Reiman, A., Reiter, D., Remppel, F., Renard, S., Riedl, R., Riemann, J., Rimkevicius, S., Riße, K., Rodatos, A., Röhlinger, H., Romé, M., Rong, P., Roscher, H. -J., Roth, B., Rudischhauser, L., Rummel, K., Rummel, T., Runov, A., Rust, N., Ryc, L., Ryosuke, S., Sakamoto, R., Samartsev, A., Sanchez, M., Sano, F., Satake, S., Satheeswaran, G., Schacht, J., Schauer, F., Scherer, T., Schlaich, A., Schlüter, K. -H., Schmitt, J., Schmitz, H., Schmitz, O., Schmuck, S., Schneider, M., Schneider, W., Scholz, M., Scholz, P., Schrittwieser, R., Schröder, M., Schröder, T., Schroeder, R., Schumacher, H., Schweer, B., Shanahan, B., Shikhovtsev, I. V., Sibilia, M., Sinha, P., Sipliä, S., Skodzik, J., Slaby, C., Smith, H., Spiess, W., Spong, D. A., Spring, A., Stadler, R., Standley, B., Stephey, L., Stoneking, M., Stridde, U., Sulek, Z., Surko, C., Suzuki, Y., Szabó, V., Szabolics, T., Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z., Tamura, N., Terra, A., Terry, J., Thomas, J., Thomsen, H., Thumm, M., von Thun, C. P., Timmermann, D., Titus, P., Toi, K., Travere, J. M., Traverso, P., Tretter, J., Tsuchiya, H., Tsujimura, T., Tulipán, S., Turnyanskiy, M., Unterberg, B., Urban, J., Urbonavicius, E., Vakulchyk, I., Valet, S., van Millingen, B., Vela, L., Velasco, J. -L., Vergote, M., Vervier, M., Vianello, N., Viebke, H., Vilbrandt, R., Vorkörper, A., Wadle, S., Wagner, F., Wang, E., Wang, N., Warmer, F., Wegener, L., Weggen, J., Wei, Y., Wendorf, J., Werner, A., Wiegel, B., Wilde, F., Winkler, E., Winters, V., Wolf, S., Wolowski, J., Wright, A., Xanthopoulos, P., Yamada, H., Yamada, I., Yasuhara, R., Yokoyama, M., Zajac, J., Zarnstorff, M., Zeitler, A., Zhang, H., Zhu, J., Zilker, M., Zimbal, A., Zocco, A., Zoletnik, S., and Zuin, M.. 2017. "Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator". United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa770d. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1415399.
@article{osti_1415399,
title = {Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator},
author = {Wolf, R. C. and Ali, A. and Alonso, A. and Baldzuhn, J. and Beidler, C. and Beurskens, M. and Biedermann, C. and Bosch, H. -S. and Bozhenkov, S. and Brakel, R. and Dinklage, A. and Feng, Y. and Fuchert, G. and Geiger, J. and Grulke, O. and Helander, P. and Hirsch, M. and Höfel, U. and Jakubowski, M. and Knauer, J. and Kocsis, G. and König, R. and Kornejew, P. and Krämer-Flecken, A. and Krychowiak, M. and Landreman, M. and Langenberg, A. and Laqua, H. P. and Lazerson, S. and Maaßberg, H. and Marsen, S. and Marushchenko, M. and Moseev, D. and Niemann, H. and Pablant, N. and Pasch, E. and Rahbarnia, K. and Schlisio, G. and Stange, T. and Sunn Pedersen, T. and Svensson, J. and Szepesi, T. and Trimino Mora, H. and Turkin, Y. and Wauters, T. and Weir, G. and Wenzel, U. and Windisch, T. and Wurden, G. and Zhang, D. and Abramovic, I. and Äkäslompolo, S. and Aleynikov, P. and Aleynikova, K. and Alzbutas, R. and Anda, G. and Andreeva, T. and Ascasibar, E. and Assmann, J. and Baek, S. -G. and Banduch, M. and Barbui, T. and Barlak, M. and Baumann, K. and Behr, W. and Benndorf, A. and Bertuch, O. and Biel, W. and Birus, D. and Blackwell, B. and Blanco, E. and Blatzheim, M. and Bluhm, T. and Böckenhoff, D. and Bolgert, P. and Borchardt, M. and Borsuk, V. and Boscary, J. and Böttger, L. -G. and Brand, H. and Brandt, Ch. and Bräuer, T. and Braune, H. and Brezinsek, S. and Brunner, K. -J. and Brünner, B. and Burhenn, R. and Buttenschön, B. and Bykov, V. and Calvo, I. and Cannas, B. and Cappa, A. and Carls, A. and Carraro, L. and Carvalho, B. and Castejon, F. and Charl, A. and Chernyshev, F. and Cianciosa, M. and Citarella, R. and Ciupiński, Ł. and Claps, G. and Cole, M. and Cole, M. J. and Cordella, F. and Cseh, G. and Czarnecka, A. and Czermak, A. and Czerski, K. and Czerwinski, M. and Czymek, G. and da Molin, A. and da Silva, A. and Dammertz, G. and Danielson, J. and de la Pena, A. and Degenkolbe, S. and Denner, P. and Dhard, D. P. and Dostal, M. and Drevlak, M. and Drewelow, P. and Drews, Ph. and Dudek, A. and Dundulis, G. and Durodie, F. and van Eeten, P. and Effenberg, F. and Ehrke, G. and Endler, M. and Ennis, D. and Erckmann, E. and Esteban, H. and Estrada, T. and Fahrenkamp, N. and Feist, J. -H. and Fellinger, J. and Fernandes, H. and Fietz, W. H. and Figacz, W. and Fontdecaba, J. and Ford, O. and Fornal, T. and Frerichs, H. and Freund, A. and Führer, M. and Funaba, T. and Galkowski, A. and Gantenbein, G. and Gao, Y. and García Regaña, J. and Garcia-Munoz, M. and Gates, D. and Gawlik, G. and Geiger, B. and Giannella, V. and Gierse, N. and Gogoleva, A. and Goncalves, B. and Goriaev, A. and Gradic, D. and Grahl, M. and Green, J. and Grosman, A. and Grote, H. and Gruca, M. and Guerard, C. and Haiduk, L. and Han, X. and Harberts, F. and Harris, J. H. and Hartfuß, H. -J. and Hartmann, D. and Hathiramani, D. and Hein, B. and Heinemann, B. and Heitzenroeder, P. and Henneberg, S. and Hennig, C. and Hernandez Sanchez, J. and Hidalgo, C. and Hölbe, H. and Hollfeld, K. P. and Hölting, A. and Höschen, D. and Houry, M. and Howard, J. and Huang, X. and Huber, M. and Huber, V. and Hunger, H. and Ida, K. and Ilkei, T. and Illy, S. and Israeli, B. and Ivanov, A. and Jablonski, S. and Jagielski, J. and Jelonnek, J. and Jenzsch, H. and Junghans, P. and Kacmarczyk, J. and Kaliatka, T. and Kallmeyer, J. -P. and Kamionka, U. and Karalevicius, R. and Kasahara, H. and Kasparek, W. and Kenmochi, N. and Keunecke, M. and Khilchenko, A. and Kinna, D. and Kleiber, R. and Klinger, T. and Knaup, M. and Kobarg, Th. and Köchl, F. and Kolesnichenko, Y. and Könies, A. and Köppen, M. and Koshurinov, J. and Koslowski, R. and Köster, F. and Koziol, R. and Krämer, M. and Krampitz, R. and Kraszewsk, P. and Krawczyk, N. and Kremeyer, T. and Krings, Th. and Krom, J. and Krzesinski, G. and Ksiazek, I. and Kubkowska, M. and Kühner, G. and Kurki-Suonio, T. and Kwak, S. and Lang, R. and Langish, S. and Laqua, H. and Laube, R. and Lechte, C. and Lennartz, M. and Leonhardt, W. and Lewerentz, L. and Liang, Y. and Linsmeier, Ch. and Liu, S. and Lobsien, J. -F. and Loesser, D. and Loizu Cisquella, J. and Lore, J. and Lorenz, A. and Losert, M. and Lubyako, L. and Lücke, A. and Lumsdaine, A. and Lutsenko, V. and Majano-Brown, J. and Marchuk, O. and Mardenfeld, M. and Marek, P. and Massidda, S. and Masuzaki, S. and Maurer, D. and McCarthy, K. and McNeely, P. and Meier, A. and Mellein, D. and Mendelevitch, B. and Mertens, Ph. and Mikkelsen, D. and Mishchenko, O. and Missal, B. and Mittelstaedt, J. and Mizuuchi, T. and Mollen, A. and Moncada, V. and Mönnich, T. and Morizaki, T. and Munk, R. and Murakami, S. and Musielok, F. and Náfrádi, G. and Nagel, M. and Naujoks, D. and Neilson, H. and Neubauer, O. and Neuner, U. and Ngo, T. and Nocentini, R. and Nührenberg, C. and Nührenberg, J. and Obermayer, S. and Offermanns, G. and Ogawa, K. and Ongena, J. and Oosterbeek, J. W. and Orozco, G. and Otte, M. and Pacios Rodriguez, L. and Pan, W. and Panadero, N. and Panadero Alvarez, N. and Panin, A. and Papenfuß, D. and Paqay, S. and Pavone, A. and Pawelec, E. and Pelka, G. and Peng, X. and Perseo, V. and Peterson, B. and Pieper, A. and Pilopp, D. and Pingel, S. and Pisano, F. and Plaum, B. and Plunk, G. and Povilaitis, M. and Preinhaelter, J. and Proll, J. and Puiatti, M. -E. and Puig Sitjes, A. and Purps, F. and Rack, M. and Récsei, S. and Reiman, A. and Reiter, D. and Remppel, F. and Renard, S. and Riedl, R. and Riemann, J. and Rimkevicius, S. and Riße, K. and Rodatos, A. and Röhlinger, H. and Romé, M. and Rong, P. and Roscher, H. -J. and Roth, B. and Rudischhauser, L. and Rummel, K. and Rummel, T. and Runov, A. and Rust, N. and Ryc, L. and Ryosuke, S. and Sakamoto, R. and Samartsev, A. and Sanchez, M. and Sano, F. and Satake, S. and Satheeswaran, G. and Schacht, J. and Schauer, F. and Scherer, T. and Schlaich, A. and Schlüter, K. -H. and Schmitt, J. and Schmitz, H. and Schmitz, O. and Schmuck, S. and Schneider, M. and Schneider, W. and Scholz, M. and Scholz, P. and Schrittwieser, R. and Schröder, M. and Schröder, T. and Schroeder, R. and Schumacher, H. and Schweer, B. and Shanahan, B. and Shikhovtsev, I. V. and Sibilia, M. and Sinha, P. and Sipliä, S. and Skodzik, J. and Slaby, C. and Smith, H. and Spiess, W. and Spong, D. A. and Spring, A. and Stadler, R. and Standley, B. and Stephey, L. and Stoneking, M. and Stridde, U. and Sulek, Z. and Surko, C. and Suzuki, Y. and Szabó, V. and Szabolics, T. and Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z. and Tamura, N. and Terra, A. and Terry, J. and Thomas, J. and Thomsen, H. and Thumm, M. and von Thun, C. P. and Timmermann, D. and Titus, P. and Toi, K. and Travere, J. M. and Traverso, P. and Tretter, J. and Tsuchiya, H. and Tsujimura, T. and Tulipán, S. and Turnyanskiy, M. and Unterberg, B. and Urban, J. and Urbonavicius, E. and Vakulchyk, I. and Valet, S. and van Millingen, B. and Vela, L. and Velasco, J. -L. and Vergote, M. and Vervier, M. and Vianello, N. and Viebke, H. and Vilbrandt, R. and Vorkörper, A. and Wadle, S. and Wagner, F. and Wang, E. and Wang, N. and Warmer, F. and Wegener, L. and Weggen, J. and Wei, Y. and Wendorf, J. and Werner, A. and Wiegel, B. and Wilde, F. and Winkler, E. and Winters, V. and Wolf, S. and Wolowski, J. and Wright, A. and Xanthopoulos, P. and Yamada, H. and Yamada, I. and Yasuhara, R. and Yokoyama, M. and Zajac, J. and Zarnstorff, M. and Zeitler, A. and Zhang, H. and Zhu, J. and Zilker, M. and Zimbal, A. and Zocco, A. and Zoletnik, S. and Zuin, M.},
abstractNote = {Here, after completing the main construction phase of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and successfully commissioning the device, first plasma operation started at the end of 2015. Integral commissioning of plasma start-up and operation using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and an extensive set of plasma diagnostics have been completed, allowing initial physics studies during the first operational campaign. Both in helium and hydrogen, plasma breakdown was easily achieved. Gaining experience with plasma vessel conditioning, discharge lengths could be extended gradually. Eventually, discharges lasted up to 6 s, reaching an injected energy of 4 MJ, which is twice the limit originally agreed for the limiter configuration employed during the first operational campaign. At power levels of 4 MW central electron densities reached 3 × 1019 m–3, central electron temperatures reached values of 7 keV and ion temperatures reached just above 2 keV. Important physics studies during this first operational phase include a first assessment of power balance and energy confinement, ECRH power deposition experiments, 2nd harmonic O-mode ECRH using multi-pass absorption, and current drive experiments using electron cyclotron current drive. As in many plasma discharges the electron temperature exceeds the ion temperature significantly, these plasmas are governed by core electron root confinement showing a strong positive electric field in the plasma centre.},
doi = {10.1088/1741-4326/aa770d},
journal = {Nuclear Fusion},
number = 10,
volume = 57,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {7}
}