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Title: Extraction of the neutron electric form factor from measurements of inclusive double spin asymmetries

Abstract

Background: Measurements of the neutron charge form factor, G$$n\atop{E}$$, are challenging because the neutron has no net charge. Additionally, measurements of the neutron form factors must use nuclear targets which require accurately accounting for nuclear effects. Extracting G$$n\atop{E}$$ with different targets and techniques provides an important test of our handling of these effects. Purpose: The goal of the measurement was to use an inclusive asymmetry measurement technique to extract the neutron charge form factor at a four-momentum transfer of 1 (GeV/c) 2. This technique has very different systematic uncertainties than traditional exclusive measurements and thus serves as an independent check of whether nuclear effects have been taken into account correctly. Method: The inclusive quasielastic reaction 3$$→\atop{He}$$ ($$→\atop{e}$$, e') was measured at Jefferson Laboratory. The neutron electric form factor, G$$n\atop{E}$$, was extracted at Q 2 = 0.98 ( GeV/c) 2 from ratios of electron-polarization asymmetries measured for two orthogonal target spin orientations. This Q 2 is high enough that the sensitivity to G$$n\atop{E}$$ is not overwhelmed by the neutron magnetic contribution, and yet low enough that explicit neutron detection is not required to suppress pion production. Results: The neutron electric form factor, G$$n\atop{E}$$, was determined to be 0.0414 ± 0.0077 ( stat ) ± 0.0022 ( syst ), providing the first high-precision inclusive extraction of the neutron's charge form factor. In conclusion: The use of the inclusive quasielastic 3$$→\atop{He}$$ ($$→\atop{e}$$, e') with a four-momentum transfer near 1 (GeV/c) 2 has been used to provide a unique measurement of G$$n\atop{E}$$. This new result provides a systematically independent validation of the exclusive extraction technique results and implies that the nuclear corrections are understood. This is contrary to the proton form factor where asymmetry and differential cross section measurements have been shown to have large systematic differences.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26); National Science Foundation (NSF)
Contributing Org.:
Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1415354
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1414851; OSTI ID: 1604273
Report Number(s):
JLAB-PHY-17-2480; DOE/OR/-23177-4155; arXiv:1704.06253
Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9985; PRVCAN; TRN: US1800770
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-06OR23177; FG02-07ER41528
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review C
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 96; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9985
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; Photonuclear reactions; Neutrons

Citation Formats

Sulkosky, V., Jin, G., Long, E., Zhang, Y. -W., Mihovilovic, M., Kelleher, A., Anderson, B., Higinbotham, D. W., Širca, S., Allada, K., Annand, J. R. M., Averett, T., Bertozzi, W., Boeglin, W., Bradshaw, P., Camsonne, A., Canan, M., Cates, G. D., Chen, C., Chen, J. -P., Chudakov, E., De Leo, R., Deng, X., Deur, A., Dutta, C., El Fassi, L., Flay, D., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Gao, H., Gilad, S., Gilman, R., Glamazdin, O., Golge, S., Gomez, J., Hansen, J. -O., Holmstrom, T., Huang, J., Ibrahim, H., de Jager, C. W., Jensen, E., Jiang, X., Jones, M., Kang, H., Katich, J., Khanal, H. P., King, P., Korsch, W., LeRose, J., Lindgren, R., Lu, H. -J., Luo, W., Markowitz, P., Meekins, D., Meziane, M., Michaels, R., Moffit, B., Monaghan, P., Muangma, N., Nanda, S., Norum, B. E., Pan, K., Parno, D., Piasetzky, E., Posik, M., Punjabi, V., Puckett, A. J. R., Qian, X., Qiang, Y., Qui, X., Riordan, S., Saha, A., Sawatzky, B., Shabestari, M., Shahinyan, A., Shoenrock, B., John, J. St., Subedi, R., Tobias, W. A., Tireman, W., Urciuoli, G. M., Wang, D., Wang, K., Wang, Y., Watson, J., Wojtsekhowski, B., Ye, Z., Zhan, X., Zhang, Y., Zheng, X., Zhao, B., and Zhu, L. Extraction of the neutron electric form factor from measurements of inclusive double spin asymmetries. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.96.065206.
Sulkosky, V., Jin, G., Long, E., Zhang, Y. -W., Mihovilovic, M., Kelleher, A., Anderson, B., Higinbotham, D. W., Širca, S., Allada, K., Annand, J. R. M., Averett, T., Bertozzi, W., Boeglin, W., Bradshaw, P., Camsonne, A., Canan, M., Cates, G. D., Chen, C., Chen, J. -P., Chudakov, E., De Leo, R., Deng, X., Deur, A., Dutta, C., El Fassi, L., Flay, D., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Gao, H., Gilad, S., Gilman, R., Glamazdin, O., Golge, S., Gomez, J., Hansen, J. -O., Holmstrom, T., Huang, J., Ibrahim, H., de Jager, C. W., Jensen, E., Jiang, X., Jones, M., Kang, H., Katich, J., Khanal, H. P., King, P., Korsch, W., LeRose, J., Lindgren, R., Lu, H. -J., Luo, W., Markowitz, P., Meekins, D., Meziane, M., Michaels, R., Moffit, B., Monaghan, P., Muangma, N., Nanda, S., Norum, B. E., Pan, K., Parno, D., Piasetzky, E., Posik, M., Punjabi, V., Puckett, A. J. R., Qian, X., Qiang, Y., Qui, X., Riordan, S., Saha, A., Sawatzky, B., Shabestari, M., Shahinyan, A., Shoenrock, B., John, J. St., Subedi, R., Tobias, W. A., Tireman, W., Urciuoli, G. M., Wang, D., Wang, K., Wang, Y., Watson, J., Wojtsekhowski, B., Ye, Z., Zhan, X., Zhang, Y., Zheng, X., Zhao, B., & Zhu, L. Extraction of the neutron electric form factor from measurements of inclusive double spin asymmetries. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.96.065206.
Sulkosky, V., Jin, G., Long, E., Zhang, Y. -W., Mihovilovic, M., Kelleher, A., Anderson, B., Higinbotham, D. W., Širca, S., Allada, K., Annand, J. R. M., Averett, T., Bertozzi, W., Boeglin, W., Bradshaw, P., Camsonne, A., Canan, M., Cates, G. D., Chen, C., Chen, J. -P., Chudakov, E., De Leo, R., Deng, X., Deur, A., Dutta, C., El Fassi, L., Flay, D., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Gao, H., Gilad, S., Gilman, R., Glamazdin, O., Golge, S., Gomez, J., Hansen, J. -O., Holmstrom, T., Huang, J., Ibrahim, H., de Jager, C. W., Jensen, E., Jiang, X., Jones, M., Kang, H., Katich, J., Khanal, H. P., King, P., Korsch, W., LeRose, J., Lindgren, R., Lu, H. -J., Luo, W., Markowitz, P., Meekins, D., Meziane, M., Michaels, R., Moffit, B., Monaghan, P., Muangma, N., Nanda, S., Norum, B. E., Pan, K., Parno, D., Piasetzky, E., Posik, M., Punjabi, V., Puckett, A. J. R., Qian, X., Qiang, Y., Qui, X., Riordan, S., Saha, A., Sawatzky, B., Shabestari, M., Shahinyan, A., Shoenrock, B., John, J. St., Subedi, R., Tobias, W. A., Tireman, W., Urciuoli, G. M., Wang, D., Wang, K., Wang, Y., Watson, J., Wojtsekhowski, B., Ye, Z., Zhan, X., Zhang, Y., Zheng, X., Zhao, B., and Zhu, L. Tue . "Extraction of the neutron electric form factor from measurements of inclusive double spin asymmetries". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.96.065206. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1415354.
@article{osti_1415354,
title = {Extraction of the neutron electric form factor from measurements of inclusive double spin asymmetries},
author = {Sulkosky, V. and Jin, G. and Long, E. and Zhang, Y. -W. and Mihovilovic, M. and Kelleher, A. and Anderson, B. and Higinbotham, D. W. and Širca, S. and Allada, K. and Annand, J. R. M. and Averett, T. and Bertozzi, W. and Boeglin, W. and Bradshaw, P. and Camsonne, A. and Canan, M. and Cates, G. D. and Chen, C. and Chen, J. -P. and Chudakov, E. and De Leo, R. and Deng, X. and Deur, A. and Dutta, C. and El Fassi, L. and Flay, D. and Frullani, S. and Garibaldi, F. and Gao, H. and Gilad, S. and Gilman, R. and Glamazdin, O. and Golge, S. and Gomez, J. and Hansen, J. -O. and Holmstrom, T. and Huang, J. and Ibrahim, H. and de Jager, C. W. and Jensen, E. and Jiang, X. and Jones, M. and Kang, H. and Katich, J. and Khanal, H. P. and King, P. and Korsch, W. and LeRose, J. and Lindgren, R. and Lu, H. -J. and Luo, W. and Markowitz, P. and Meekins, D. and Meziane, M. and Michaels, R. and Moffit, B. and Monaghan, P. and Muangma, N. and Nanda, S. and Norum, B. E. and Pan, K. and Parno, D. and Piasetzky, E. and Posik, M. and Punjabi, V. and Puckett, A. J. R. and Qian, X. and Qiang, Y. and Qui, X. and Riordan, S. and Saha, A. and Sawatzky, B. and Shabestari, M. and Shahinyan, A. and Shoenrock, B. and John, J. St. and Subedi, R. and Tobias, W. A. and Tireman, W. and Urciuoli, G. M. and Wang, D. and Wang, K. and Wang, Y. and Watson, J. and Wojtsekhowski, B. and Ye, Z. and Zhan, X. and Zhang, Y. and Zheng, X. and Zhao, B. and Zhu, L.},
abstractNote = {Background: Measurements of the neutron charge form factor, G$n\atop{E}$, are challenging because the neutron has no net charge. Additionally, measurements of the neutron form factors must use nuclear targets which require accurately accounting for nuclear effects. Extracting G$n\atop{E}$ with different targets and techniques provides an important test of our handling of these effects. Purpose: The goal of the measurement was to use an inclusive asymmetry measurement technique to extract the neutron charge form factor at a four-momentum transfer of 1 (GeV/c)2. This technique has very different systematic uncertainties than traditional exclusive measurements and thus serves as an independent check of whether nuclear effects have been taken into account correctly. Method: The inclusive quasielastic reaction 3$→\atop{He}$ ($→\atop{e}$, e') was measured at Jefferson Laboratory. The neutron electric form factor, G$n\atop{E}$, was extracted at Q2 = 0.98 ( GeV/c)2 from ratios of electron-polarization asymmetries measured for two orthogonal target spin orientations. This Q2 is high enough that the sensitivity to G$n\atop{E}$ is not overwhelmed by the neutron magnetic contribution, and yet low enough that explicit neutron detection is not required to suppress pion production. Results: The neutron electric form factor, G$n\atop{E}$, was determined to be 0.0414 ± 0.0077 ( stat ) ± 0.0022 ( syst ), providing the first high-precision inclusive extraction of the neutron's charge form factor. In conclusion: The use of the inclusive quasielastic 3$→\atop{He}$ ($→\atop{e}$, e') with a four-momentum transfer near 1 (GeV/c)2 has been used to provide a unique measurement of G$n\atop{E}$. This new result provides a systematically independent validation of the exclusive extraction technique results and implies that the nuclear corrections are understood. This is contrary to the proton form factor where asymmetry and differential cross section measurements have been shown to have large systematic differences.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.96.065206},
journal = {Physical Review C},
number = 6,
volume = 96,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}

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Figures / Tables:

TABLE I TABLE I: Parallel ( A‖ ) and transverse (A⊥) asymmetries near the quasi-elastic peak versus xB. The format for the asymmetries follows central value ± statistical uncertainty ± systematic uncertainty.

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      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.