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Title: Strontium and barium isotopes in presolar silicon carbide grains measured with CHILI—two types of X grains

Here, we used CHILI, the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization, a new resonance ionization mass spectrometer developed for isotopic analysis of small samples, to analyze strontium, zirconium, and barium isotopes in 22 presolar silicon carbide grains. Twenty of the grains showed detectable strontium and barium, but none of the grains had enough zirconium to be detected with CHILI. Nine grains were excluded from further consideration since they showed very little signals (<1000 counts) for strontium as well as for barium. Among the 11 remaining grains, we found three X grains. The discovery of three supernova grains among only 22 grains was fortuitous, because only ~1% of presolar silicon carbide grains are type X, but was confirmed by silicon isotopic measurements of grain residues with NanoSIMS. And while one of the X grains showed strontium and barium isotope patterns expected for supernova grains, the two other supernova grains have 87Sr/86Sr < 0.5, values never observed in any natural sample before. From their silicon isotope ratios, the latter two grains can be classified as X2 grains, while the former grain belongs to the more common X1 group. The differences of these grains in strontium and barium isotopic composition constrain their individual formationmore » conditions in Type II supernovae.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [2]
  1. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences; Chicago enter for Cosmochemistry, Chicago, IL (United States)
  2. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences, Enrico Fermi Inst.; Chicago enter for Cosmochemistry, Chicago, IL (United States)
  3. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences, Enrico Fermi Inst.; Chicago enter for Cosmochemistry, Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Materisl Science Division
  4. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Materisl Science Division
  5. Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Lab. for Space Sciences, Dept. of Physics
  6. Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-729492
Journal ID: ISSN 0016-7037; TRN: US1800684
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344; NNX07AL94G; NNX11AC21G; NNX15AF78G; NNX12AL85HNNX09AG39G
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 221; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0016-7037
Publisher:
The Geochemical Society; The Meteoritical Society
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; presolar grains; silicon carbide; supernovae; nucleosynthesis; resonance ionizatoin mass spectrometry (RIMS); strontium isotopes; barium isotopes
OSTI Identifier:
1414348

Stephan, Thomas, Trappitsch, Reto, Davis, Andrew M., Pellin, Michael J., Rost, Detlef, Savina, Michael R., Jadhav, Manavi, Kelly, Christopher H., Gyngard, Frank, Hoppe, Peter, and Dauphas, Nicolas. Strontium and barium isotopes in presolar silicon carbide grains measured with CHILI—two types of X grains. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2017.05.001.
Stephan, Thomas, Trappitsch, Reto, Davis, Andrew M., Pellin, Michael J., Rost, Detlef, Savina, Michael R., Jadhav, Manavi, Kelly, Christopher H., Gyngard, Frank, Hoppe, Peter, & Dauphas, Nicolas. Strontium and barium isotopes in presolar silicon carbide grains measured with CHILI—two types of X grains. United States. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2017.05.001.
Stephan, Thomas, Trappitsch, Reto, Davis, Andrew M., Pellin, Michael J., Rost, Detlef, Savina, Michael R., Jadhav, Manavi, Kelly, Christopher H., Gyngard, Frank, Hoppe, Peter, and Dauphas, Nicolas. 2017. "Strontium and barium isotopes in presolar silicon carbide grains measured with CHILI—two types of X grains". United States. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2017.05.001. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1414348.
@article{osti_1414348,
title = {Strontium and barium isotopes in presolar silicon carbide grains measured with CHILI—two types of X grains},
author = {Stephan, Thomas and Trappitsch, Reto and Davis, Andrew M. and Pellin, Michael J. and Rost, Detlef and Savina, Michael R. and Jadhav, Manavi and Kelly, Christopher H. and Gyngard, Frank and Hoppe, Peter and Dauphas, Nicolas},
abstractNote = {Here, we used CHILI, the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization, a new resonance ionization mass spectrometer developed for isotopic analysis of small samples, to analyze strontium, zirconium, and barium isotopes in 22 presolar silicon carbide grains. Twenty of the grains showed detectable strontium and barium, but none of the grains had enough zirconium to be detected with CHILI. Nine grains were excluded from further consideration since they showed very little signals (<1000 counts) for strontium as well as for barium. Among the 11 remaining grains, we found three X grains. The discovery of three supernova grains among only 22 grains was fortuitous, because only ~1% of presolar silicon carbide grains are type X, but was confirmed by silicon isotopic measurements of grain residues with NanoSIMS. And while one of the X grains showed strontium and barium isotope patterns expected for supernova grains, the two other supernova grains have 87Sr/86Sr < 0.5, values never observed in any natural sample before. From their silicon isotope ratios, the latter two grains can be classified as X2 grains, while the former grain belongs to the more common X1 group. The differences of these grains in strontium and barium isotopic composition constrain their individual formation conditions in Type II supernovae.},
doi = {10.1016/j.gca.2017.05.001},
journal = {Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta},
number = C,
volume = 221,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}